Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 12 Deck (104):
1

- Basic parts of the Brain -

_________ – 2 hemispheres, form most of the front and middle of the brain

Cerebrum

2

- Basic parts of the Brain -

_________ – thalamus and hypothalamus

Diencephalon

3

- Basic parts of the Brain -

_________ – 2 hemispheres, form the posterior and inferior parts of the brain; much smaller than the cerebrum

Cerebellum

4

- Basic parts of the Brain -

_________ – leads to the spinal cord; contains the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata

Brainstem

5

Three parts of the Brainstem:

-
-pons
-

-midbrain
-medulla oblongata

6

_________ :

-Hollow chambers that contain CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)
-Lined with ependymal cells

The Ventricles of the Brain

7

_________ ventricles – C-shaped chambers; one in each cerebral hemisphere

Lateral

8

Lateral ventricles – Separated by a membrane called the _________

septum pellucidum

9

_________ ventricle – connected to the lateral ventricles via the interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)

Third

10

_________ ventricle – continuation of the 3rd ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct

Fourth

11

Fourth ventricle – continuation of the 3rd ventricle via the _________

cerebral aqueduct

12

Third ventricle – connected to the lateral ventricles via the _________

interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)

13

_________ ventricle is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord

4th

14

_________ fissure – runs medially and separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum

Longitudinal

15

_________ fissure – separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum

Transverse

16

_________ – separates the frontal lobe and parietal lobe

Central sulcus

17

The _________ gyrus lies anterior to the central sulcus and the _________ gyrus lies posterior to the central sulcus

-precentral
-postcentral

18

The precentral gyrus lies anterior to the _________ sulcus and the postcentral gyrus lies _________ to the central sulcus

-central
-posterior

19

_________ :

-Most superficial part of the brain
-Controls everything that we’re aware of – muscle movements, communication, and memory

The Cerebral Cortex

20

The Cerebral Cortex :

-Most superficial part of the _________
-Controls everything that we’re aware of – _________ movements, communication, and _________

-brain
-muscle
-memory

21

The Cerebral Cortex :

-Made up of gray matter – cell bodies, _________, unmyelinated axons, _________, and _________ vessels
-Contains about 14 billion neurons, arranged in 6 layers
-Totals about 2-4mm thick
-Makes up 40% of the brain’s mass

-dendrites
-glial cells
-blood

22

The Cerebral Cortex :

-Made up of gray matter – cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, glial cells, and blood vessels
-Contains about ___ billion neurons, arranged in ___ layers
-Totals about 2-4mm thick
-Makes up ___ of the brain’s mass

-14
-6
-40%

23

- Three functional areas the Cerebral Cortex -

_________ areas – control voluntary functions

Motor

24

- Three functional areas the Cerebral Cortex -

_________ areas – conscious awareness of sensation

Sensory

25

- Three functional areas the Cerebral Cortex -

_________ areas – integration

Association

26

Each hemisphere controls or receives information from the _________ (_________) side of the body

-opposite
-contralateral

27

_________ cortex – (precentral gyrus)

Primary (somatic) motor

28

_________ cortex generates neural impulses that control the execution of movement

primary motor

29

_________ cortex – anterior to the precentral gyrus

Premotor

30

_________ cortex – Controls learned motor skills – like playing an instrument or typing (it’s the memory of muscle activity)

Premotor

31

_________ cortex – found in the postcentral gyrus

Primary somatosensory

32

_________ cortex – Receive sensory information from the skin and proprioceptors in the skeletal muscles

Primary somatosensory

33

_________ cortex – Identify area being stimulated – this is called spatial discrimination

Primary somatosensory

34

_________ cortex - Allows us to touch something and know what it is without looking – like digging in your pockets and finding keys or a quarter

Somatosensory association

35

_________ cortex – posterior part of the occipital lobe

Primary visual

36

_________ cortex -

-Receives information from the eyes
-This is where we perceive motion, light, and contrast
-Damage to this area will result in blindness

Primary visual

37

_________ association area – surrounds the primary visual cortex

Visual

38

_________ cortex – superior part of the temporal lobe

Primary auditory

39

_________ cortex – Receives information from the cochlea where it is interpreted for pitch, rhythm, and loudness

Primary auditory

40

_________ association area – more posterior

Auditory

41

_________ association area –This is where we interpret what we hear as speech, music, yelling, laughing, etc.

Auditory

42

_________ Association Area –

-Involved in intellect, recall, and personality
-Responsible for formation of ideas, judgement, reasoning, persistence, planning, compassion, and conscience
-Damage is this area can cause mood swings, bad behavior, and recklessness

Anterior
(prefrontal cortex)

43

Anterior Association Area (prefrontal cortex) –

-Involved in intellect, recall, and personality
-Responsible for formation of _________, judgement, reasoning, _________, planning, compassion, and conscience
-Damage is this area can cause _________ swings, bad behavior, and _________

-ideas
-persistence
-mood
-recklessness

44

_________ Association Area –

Involved in recognizing patterns, faces, and our surroundings

Posterior

45

_________ Association Area – emotional part of the brain
-Provides emotional impact of danger, fear, joy, and grief
--Also involved in memory

Limbic

46

Limbic Association Area –

emotional part of the brain
-Provides emotional _________ of danger, _________, joy, and grief
--Also involved in _________

-impact
-fear
-memory

47

commissures are made up of _________ fibers
-These are responsible for communication between 2 cerebral hemispheres

commissural

48

_________ fibers – connect different parts of the same hemisphere

Association

49

_________ fibers – connect gyri that are close to each other

Short

50

_________ fibers – connect different lobes

Long

51

_________ fibers – connect the cortex to the rest of the CNS and to the receptors and effectors

Projection

52

Projection fibers – connect the cortex to the rest of the CNS and to the _________ and _________

-receptors
-effectors

53

Projection fibers travel _________, while commissural and association fibers travel _________

-verticaly
-horizontally

54

- 5 basic functions of the basal nuclei -

i. Influence _________ movements by communicating with the _________ cortex
ii. Influence attention span and conscious thought
iii. Start, stop, and monitor movements like swinging your arms
iv. Regulate the intensity of movements
v. Inhibit unnecessary movements – enable us to do several things at once

-muscle
-primary motor

55

- 5 basic functions of the basal nuclei -

i. Influence muscle movements by communicating with the primary motor cortex
ii. Influence _________ span and _________ thought
iii. Start, stop, and monitor _________ like swinging your arms
iv. Regulate the intensity of movements
v. Inhibit unnecessary movements – enable us to do several things at once

-attention
-conscious
-movements

56

- 5 basic functions of the basal nuclei -

i. Influence muscle movements by communicating with the primary motor cortex
ii. Influence attention span and conscious thought
iii. Start, stop, and monitor movements like swinging your arms
iv. Regulate the _________ of movements
v. _________ unnecessary movements – enable us to do _________ things at once

-intensity
-Inhibit
-several

57

General functions of the thalamus:

1. Relays sensory input to the _________
2. Helps to focus the attention of the _________ – aids in
concentration
3. Some interpretation of thermal and pain sensations

-cerebral hemispheres
-cerebral cortex

58

General functions of the thalamus:

1. Relays sensory input to the cerebral hemispheres
2. Helps to focus the attention of the CC – aids in _________
3. Some interpretation of _________ and pain sensations

-concentration
-thermal

59

Functions of the hypothalamus. :

_________ – regulates the involuntary nervous system
-Controls rate of digestion, _________, constriction or dilation of the pupils, respiratory rate, and sweating

-Autonomic control center
-heart rate

60

Functions of the hypothalamus. :

_________ – controls the physical aspects of emotions – tears, _________, dry mouth, etc
--Also influences sex drive

-Center for emotional response
-blushing

61

Functions of the hypothalamus. :

_________ – acts as the thermostat for the body

Body temperature regulation

62

Functions of the hypothalamus. :

_________ -
-Sends hormone signals to the pituitary gland
-Produces hormones ___ and oxytocin

-Control of endocrine system
-ADH

63

_________ – audio and visual reflex centers – 2 pairs of nuclei

Corpora quadrigemina

64

_________ – dark nucleus that contains a lot of melanin

Substantia nigra

65

_________ - Responsible for the release of dopamine (neurotransmitter)
-Damage will result in Parkinson’s disease

Substantia nigra

66

_________ -
Bulging part of the brain stem between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata and forms the anterior wall of the 4th ventricle

The Pons

67

The Pons:

-Connects the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord
-Connects the motor cortex of the cerebrum to the _________
-Helps the _________ control breathing

-cerebellum
-medulla

68

The Pons:

-Connects the _________ to the spinal cord
-Connects the _________ of the cerebrum to the cerebellum
-Helps the medulla control breathing

-cerebral cortex
-motor cortex

69

Four functions of the medulla oblongata:

1. _________ – controls force and rate of heart contraction and _________
2. Respiratory centers control rate and depth of breathing
3. Relay touch, conscious proprioception, pressure, and vibration to the thalamus
4. Various centers control things like vomiting, hiccups, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing

-Cardiovascular center
-blood pressure

70

Four functions of the medulla oblongata:

1. Cardiovascular center – controls force and rate of heart contraction and blood pressure
2. _________ control rate and depth of _________
3. Relay touch, conscious proprioception, pressure, and vibration to the thalamus
4. Various centers control things like vomiting, hiccups, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing

-Respiratory centers
-breathing

71

Four functions of the medulla oblongata:

1. Cardiovascular center – controls force and rate of heart contraction and blood pressure
2. Respiratory centers control rate and depth of breathing
3. Relay _________, conscious proprioception, _________, and vibration to the thalamus
4. Various centers control things like vomiting, hiccups, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing

-touch
-pressure

72

Four functions of the medulla oblongata:

1. Cardiovascular center – controls force and rate of heart contraction and blood pressure
2. Respiratory centers control rate and depth of breathing
3. Relay touch, conscious proprioception, pressure, and vibration to the thalamus
4. Various centers control things like _________, hiccups, _________, coughing, and sneezing

-vomiting
-swallowing

73

Fibers entering and exiting the cerebellum are _________ .

ipsilateral

74

The _________ forms the emotional part of the brain.

limbic system

75

_________ - Clusters of neurons that form columns along the brain stem

Reticular Formation

76

Reticular Formation

-Keeps the _________ cortex alert and conscious
- _________ out weak, familiar, or repetitive signals

-cerebral
-Filters

77

_________ – dura mater forms walls within the brain to limit movement; act like baffles of a waterbed

Dural septa

78

-Dural septa-

_________ – separates cerebral hemispheres

Falx cerebri

79

-Dural septa-

_________ – separates cerebrum from cerebellum

Tentorium cerebelli

80

_________ –
-Found in and around the brain and spinal cord

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

81

Functions of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF):

1. Acts as a _________ and protects the brain against its own weight – brain “_________” in the cranial cavity
2. Provides optimal environment for neuron signaling
3. Allows exchange of nutrients and waste products between blood and nervous tissue

-shock absorber
-floats

82

Functions of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF):

1. Acts as a shock absorber and protects the brain against its own weight – brain “floats” in the cranial cavity
2. Provides optimal environment for _________ signaling
3. Allows _________ of nutrients and waste products between blood and nervous tissue

-neuron
-exchange

83

Functions of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF):

1. Acts as a shock absorber and protects the brain against its own weight – brain “floats” in the cranial cavity
2. Provides optimal environment for neuron signaling
3. Allows exchange of nutrients and _________ products between blood and _________ tissue

-waste
-nervous

84

Blood-Brain Barrier
-Formed by _________ – cells are joined by tight _________

-capillaries
-junctions

85

-Brain Injuries-

_________ – mild brain injury

-Marked by _________, seeing stars, and Loss of consciousness (LOC)
-No permanent damage

-Concussion
-dizziness

86

-Brain Injuries-

_________ – actual destruction of brain tissue

-May result in _________ if the injury is in the brain stem

-Contusion
-coma

87

-Brain Injuries-

_________ – bleeding in the spaces

-Blood accumulates and increases pressure on the _________

-Subdural or subarachnoid
hemorrhage
-brain

88

_________ -

-Also called “stroke”; _________ leading cause of death in North America
-Blood circulation to an area is blocked and brain tissue begins to die

-Cerebrovascular Accidents
-third

89

Spinal Cord comes to a point at its end called the _________

conus medullaris

90

_________ – extension of the conus medullaris covered by pia mater
-Anchors the cord to the coccyx

Filum terminale

91

lumbar and sacral spinal nerves travel down until they exit the column, These nerves are collectively called the _________ – which literally means horse’s tail

-cauda equina

92

_________ - Made up of cell bodies, unmyelinated processes, and supporting cells

Gray matter

93

_________ - Made up of fibers that provide communication between different parts of the cord as well as between the cord and the brain

White Matter

94

"horns” of the spinal cord

_________ – posterior; sensory receptor area

Dorsal horns

95

"horns” of the spinal cord

_________ – only present in the thoracic region; neurons are sympathetic motor neurons for the visceral organs

Lateral

96

_________ is the sensory receptor area

the dorsal horn

97

Know that ascending tracts are usually _________ and descending tracts are usually _________

-sensory
-motor

98

Vertebral levels _________ and _________ are the most common sites for Spinal Cord

-C5/C6
-T12/L1

99

Vertebral levels C5/C6 and T12/L1 are the most common sites because:

-Greater _________ in those areas
-Cord is _________ in these areas

-mobility
-largest

100

Poliomyelitis

i. _________ of the spinal cord
ii. Virus causes _________ to die and they are replaced by _________ tissue
iii. If the ventral horn is affected, paralysis of lower limbs occurs
iv.If the upper cervicals or the medulla oblongata is affected, respiratory failure can occur

-Inflammation
-cells
-scar

101

Poliomyelitis

i. Inflammation of the spinal cord
ii. Virus causes cells to die and they are replaced by scar tissue
iii. If the _________ horn is affected, _________ of lower limbs occurs
iv.If the upper cervicals or the _________ is affected, respiratory failure can occur

-ventral
-paralysis
-medulla oblongata

102

_________ -

i. Also called Lou Gehrig’s Disease
ii. Causes destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons
iii. Results in paralysis of skeletal muscle
iv. As disease progresses, person loses the ability to speak, swallow, and breathe
v. No cure, limited treatment, death usually occurs within 5 years

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

103

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

i. Also called _________ Disease
ii. Causes destruction of the _________ motor neurons
iii. Results in paralysis of _________ muscle
iv. As disease progresses, person loses the ability to speak, swallow, and breathe
v. No cure, limited treatment, death usually occurs within 5 years

-Lou Gehrig’s
-ventral horn
-skeletal

104

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

i. Also called Lou Gehrig’s Disease
ii. Causes destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons
iii. Results in paralysis of skeletal muscle
iv. As disease progresses, person loses the ability to _________, swallow, and _________
v. No _________, limited treatment, death usually occurs within __ years

-speak
-breathe
-cure
-5