Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 14-16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 14-16 Deck (102):
1

Effectors –

_________ : stimulates skeletal muscle

somatic system

2

Effectors –

_________ : stimulates cardiac and smooth muscle and glands

autonomic

3

-Efferent pathways and ganglia-

_________ – one neuron where cell bodies are in the CNS and axons travel to the muscle
-Most fibers are thick and myelinated

Somatic

4

-Efferent pathways and ganglia-

_________ -Most fibers are thick and myelinated

Somatic

5

-Efferent pathways and ganglia-

_________ – two neurons; 1st cell body is in the CNS and
its axon (preganglionic) connects with the 2nd neuron in an autonomic ganglion outside the CNS.

Autonomic

6

-Efferent pathways and ganglia-

Autonomic – two neurons; 1st cell body is in the ___ and
its axon (preganglionic) connects with the ___ neuron in an autonomic ganglion outside the CNS.

-CNS
-2nd

7

-Efferent pathways and ganglia-

_________ - The 2nd axon (postganglionic) then travels to the effector

-Most fibers are thin and either lightly myelinated or are unmyelinated

-Transmission is much slower than in the somatic

Autonomic

8

-Efferent pathways and ganglia-

Autonomic - The 2nd axon (postganglionic) then travels to the _________

-Most fibers are _________ and either lightly myelinated or are unmyelinated

-Transmission is much _________ than in the somatic

-effector
-thin
-slower

9

exercising muscles (stimulated by _________ system) demand more oxygen, so ___ increases heart rate and breathing rate

-somatic
-ANS

10

Four cranial nerves are involved with the Parasympathetic system:

_________ – innervates smooth muscles in the eye that allow for focusing on close objects

Oculomotor

11

Four cranial nerves are involved with the Parasympathetic system:

_________ – innervates the glands of the head – lacrimal, submandibular and sublingual (tears and saliva)

Facial

12

Four cranial nerves are involved with the Parasympathetic system:

_________ – innervates the parotid gland

Glossopharyngeal

13

Four cranial nerves are involved with the Parasympathetic system:

_________ – innervates most of the organs of the thorax and abdomen

Vagus

14

- Pathway of a _________ -

-Leaves spinal cord through the ventral root, travels in the white rams communicans
-From the WRC, fibers join with a ganglion that is part of the sympathetic trunk
-synapse is made in the ST
-the postganglionic axon joins
with the spinal nerves via the gray ramus communicans
-WRC connects the preganglionic fibers to the ST; GRC connects the ST to the spinal nerves
-viii. Postganglionic axons then travel on to visceral
effectors (heart, lungs, liver, etc. (page 536)
-Pelvic splanchnic nerves innervate colon, ureters, bladder, and reproductive organs

sympathetic neuron

15

- Pathway of a sympathetic neuron -

-Leaves spinal cord through the _________, travels in the white rams communicans
-From the WRC, fibers join with a _________ that is part of the _________ trunk
-synapse is made in the ST
-the postganglionic axon joins
with the spinal nerves via the gray ramus communicans
-WRC connects the preganglionic fibers to the ST; GRC connects the ST to the spinal nerves
-viii. Postganglionic axons then travel on to visceral
effectors (heart, lungs, liver, etc. (page 536)
-Pelvic splanchnic nerves innervate colon, ureters, bladder, and reproductive organs

-ventral root
-ganglion
-sympathetic

16

- Pathway of a sympathetic neuron -

-Leaves spinal cord through the ventral root, travels in the white rams communicans
-From the WRC, fibers join with a ganglion that is part of the sympathetic trunk
- _________ is made in the ST
-the postganglionic axon joins
with the spinal nerves via the _________ ramus communicans
-WRC connects the _________ fibers to the ST; GRC connects the ST to the spinal nerves
-Postganglionic axons then travel on to visceral
effectors (heart, lungs, liver, etc.
-Pelvic splanchnic nerves innervate colon, ureters, bladder, and reproductive organs

-synapse
-gray
-preganglionic

17

- Pathway of a sympathetic neuron -

-Leaves spinal cord through the ventral root, travels in the white rams communicans
-From the WRC, fibers join with a ganglion that is part of the sympathetic trunk
-synapse is made in the ST
-the postganglionic axon joins
with the spinal nerves via the gray ramus communicans
-WRC connects the preganglionic fibers to the ST; GRC connects the ST to the _________ nerves
-Postganglionic axons then travel on to _________
effectors (heart, lungs, liver, etc.
-Pelvic splanchnic nerves innervate _________, ureters, bladder, and reproductive organs

-spinal
-visceral
-colon

18

The brain stem has a lot of influence over the ANS, mostly through _________

-reflexes

19

Heart beat, _________, GI activity and _________ are controlled in the brain stem

-respiration
-pupil dilation

20

Elimination is controlled in the _________

spinal cord

21

Hypothalamus – coordinates _________ activity, respiration, _________ , and blood pressure

-heart
-body temp

22

_________ : coordinates emotions and biological drives and controls our reaction to fear

Hypothalamus

23

_________ – physical response to an emotion or thought
– heart races when remembering being frightened

Cerebral cortex

24

_________ may be caused by excessive sympathetic vasoconstriction

Hypertension

25

- 3 types of taste buds -

_________ papillae – found all over the surface of the tongue

Fungiform

26

- 3 types of taste buds -

_________ papillae – very large, form a V on the back of the tongue

Circumvallate

27

- 3 types of taste buds -

_________ papillae – side of the tongue

Foliate

28

-3 types of cells found within a taste bud-

_________ cells – provide insulation (stratified squamous epithelium)

Supporting

29

-3 types of cells found within a taste bud-

_________ cells – have gustatory hairs that project up through a taste pore to the surface
-Hairs are the sensory receptors for taste
-Exposed to a lot of friction – are replaced every 7-10 days

Gustatory (taste)

30

-3 types of cells found within a taste bud-

_________ cells – stem cells that give rise to new taste cells

Basal

31

Gustatory (taste) cells – have gustatory hairs that project up through a taste pore to the surface
-Hairs are the _________ receptors for taste
-Exposed to a lot of friction – are replaced every ___ days

-sensory
-7-10

32

-5 taste qualities-

_________ – sugars, alcohol, saccharin, amino acids
-Provided by carbohydrates

Sweet

33

-5 taste qualities-

Sweet – sugars, alcohol, saccharin, amino acids
-Provided by _________

carbohydrates

34

-5 taste qualities-

_________ – produced by acids
-Fruits that contain Vitamin C

Sour

35

-5 taste qualities-

Sour – produced by acids
-Fruits that contain Vitamin __

C

36

-5 taste qualities-

_________ – produced by metal ions (sodium chloride)
-Provides minerals

Salt

37

-5 taste qualities-

Salt – produced by metal ions (sodium chloride)
-Provides _________

minerals

38

-5 taste qualities-

_________ – quinine, nicotine, caffeine, morphine, strychnine, aspirin
-Natural poisons and spoiled food – protective mechanism

Bitter

39

-5 taste qualities-

Bitter – quinine, nicotine, caffeine, morphine, strychnine, aspirin
-Natural poisons and spoiled food – _________ mechanism

protective

40

-5 taste qualities-

_________ – produced by a specific amino acid
-Provides taste of beef, cheese, and MSG
-Satisfies need for protein

Umami

41

-5 taste qualities-

Umami – produced by a specific amino acid
-Provides taste of beef, _________, and MSG
-Satisfies need for _________

-cheese
-protein

42

3 cranial nerves involved in carrying taste:

- _________ nerve
-glossopharyngeal nerve
- _________ nerve

-facial
-vagus

43

3 cranial nerves involved in carrying taste:

-facial nerve
- _________ nerve
-vagus nerve

glossopharyngeal

44

Olfactory epithelium – located in the roof of the _________

nasal cavity

45

olfactory neurons go to:

-
-hypothalamus
-

-olfactory bulb
-limbic system

46

olfactory neurons go to:

-olfactory bulb
-
-limbic system

-hypothalamus

47

About ___% of the body’s sensory receptors are in the eyes

70

48

Almost ___ of the cerebral cortex is involved in visual processing

1/2

49

3 layers of the eyeball:

- _________ – outermost
-Vascular – middle layer
- _________ - (retina) – innermost, double layer

-Fibrous
-Sensory tunic

50

3 layers of the eyeball:

-Fibrous – outermost
- _________ – middle layer
-Sensory tunic (retina) – innermost, _________ layer

-Vascular
-double

51

- Structure of the Eyeball -

_________ :
-Sclera
-Cornea

Fibrous

52

- Structure of the Eyeball -

_________ :
-Choroid
-Iris
-Pupil

Vascular

53

- Structure of the Eyeball -

_________ :
-Pigmented layer
-Neural
-Optic disc
-Fovea centralis
-"Detached retina”

Sensory tunic (retina)

54

_________ – blind spot where the optic nerve connects to the eye

Optic disc

55

_________ – “pit” in the retina – fewer structures block the photoreceptors, so visual acuity is increased

Fovea centralis

56

_________ cavity – contains vitreous humor

Posterior

57

_________ cavity – contains aqueous humor

Anterior

58

_________ cavity :

-Transmits light
-Supports the lens and retina
-Maintains pressure
-Vitreous humor is formed before we’re born and last our entire lifetime

Posterior

59

Posterior cavity :

-Transmits light
-Supports the _________ and retina
-Maintains _________
-Vitreous humor is formed before we’re _________ and last our entire lifetime

-lens
-pressure
-born

60

_________ cavity :

-Supplies nutrients and oxygen
-Helps maintain pressure
-Aqueous humor is continually drained and replaced

Anterior

61

Anterior cavity :

-Supplies nutrients and oxygen
-Helps _________ pressure
-Aqueous humor is continually _________ and replaced

-maintain
-drained

62

_________ – eyeball is too long, so light is focused in front of the retina

Myopia (“nearsighted”)

63

_________ – eyeball is too short, so light is focused behind the retina

Hyperopia (“farsighted”)

64

_________ – lack of one or more cone types

Color blindness

65

_________ – rod function is impaired; may be caused by Vitamin A deficiency

Night blindness

66

Night blindness – may be caused by Vitamin __ deficiency

A

67

_________ :

-Most common is red-green
-Sex linked – more common in males

Color blindness

68

_________ – caused by pressure changes, which creates a wave (ripple effect)

Sound

69

Pathway of Sound :

-Enters the _________ canal, and hits the tympanic _________, causing it to stretch and _________
-Travels through the ossicles to the oval window (membrane of the cochlea)
-Cochlea converts vibrations into nerve impulses – fluid and cilia in the cochlea sends signals to the cochlear nerve
-Cochlear nerve carries impulse to the primary auditory cortex (by way of the medulla oblongata and thalamus)

-external auditory
-membrane
-vibrate

70

Pathway of Sound :

-Enters the external auditory canal, and hits the tympanic membrane, causing it to stretch and vibrate
-Travels through the _________ to the oval _________ (membrane of the _________)
-Cochlea converts vibrations into nerve impulses – fluid and cilia in the cochlea sends signals to the cochlear nerve
-Cochlear nerve carries impulse to the primary auditory cortex (by way of the medulla oblongata and thalamus)

-ossicles
-window
-cochlea

71

Pathway of Sound :

-Enters the external auditory canal, and hits the tympanic membrane, causing it to stretch and vibrate
-Travels through the ossicles to the oval window (membrane of the cochlea)
- _________ converts vibrations into _________ impulses – fluid and cilia in the _________ sends signals to the cochlear nerve
-Cochlear nerve carries impulse to the primary auditory cortex (by way of the medulla oblongata and thalamus)

-Cochlea
-nerve
-cochlea

72

Pathway of Sound :

-Enters the external auditory canal, and hits the tympanic membrane, causing it to stretch and vibrate
-Travels through the ossicles to the oval window (membrane of the cochlea)
-Cochlea converts vibrations into nerve impulses – fluid and cilia in the cochlea sends signals to the cochlear nerve
-Cochlear nerve carries _________ to the primary _________ cortex (by way of the _________ and thalamus)

-impulse
-auditory
-medulla oblongata

73

_________ – hair cells along basilar membrane are activated by different frequencies

Pitch

74

_________ – loud sounds cause stronger vibrations of the tympanic membrane, ossicles, and oval window

Loudness

75

Loudness – loud sounds cause stronger vibrations of the _________ membrane, ossicles, and _________ window

-tympanic
-oval

76

_________ – brain stem helps to locate the source of sound

-Receptors on the side of the source of the sound are activated more quickly and more intensely than the opposite side

Localization

77

Localization – brain stem helps to locate the source of sound

- _________ on the side of the source of the sound are activated more quickly and more intensely than the _________ side

-Receptors
-opposite

78

-Deafness – two basic causes -

_________ deafness – transmission of sound to the inner ear is hindered

-Excessive earwax, ruptured eardrum, ear infections
-Otosclerosis – ossicles become fused to each other or to the oval window

Conduction

79

-Deafness – two basic causes-

_________ deafness – results from damage of any of the neural structures

-Receptor cells – single loud noise or prolonged exposure
-Degeneration of the cochlear nerve, tumors, cerebral infarcts

Sensorineural

80

-Deafness – two basic causes -

Conduction deafness – transmission of sound to the inner ear is hindered

-Excessive _________, ruptured eardrum, ear _________
- _________ – ossicles become fused to each other or to the oval window

-earwax
-infections
-Otosclerosis

81

-Deafness – two basic causes-

Sensorineural deafness – results from damage of any of the neural structures

- _________ cells – single loud noise or prolonged exposure
- _________ of the cochlear nerve, tumors, cerebral infarcts

-Receptor
-Degeneration

82

- Hormones made by or released by the pituitary gland -

_________ – stimulates bone, muscle, and cartilage

Growth hormone

83

- Hormones made by or released by the pituitary gland -

_________ – stimulates thyroid to release thyroid hormone

Thyroid stimulating hormone

84

- Hormones made by or released by the pituitary gland -

_________ – stimulates the adrenal glands

ACTH

85

- Hormones made by or released by the pituitary gland -

_________ – stimulate the ovaries and testes to promote ovulation, egg and sperm maturation

FSH and LH

86

- Hormones made by or released by the pituitary gland -

_________ – promotes lactation

PRL

87

- Hormones made by or released by the pituitary gland -

_________ – initiates and continues uterine contractions

oxytocin

88

- Hormones made by or released by the pituitary gland -

_________ – causes the kidneys to retain water

ADH

89

_________ and _________ are made by the hypothalamus, but stored and released by the pituitary

-Oxytocin
-ADH

90

_________ :

-Control the BMR – basal metabolic rate

-Promote normal glucose usage, heart function, muscle and skeletal system development

thyroxine and triiodothyronine

91

thyroxine and triiodothyronine

-Control the BMR – (_________)

-Promote normal _________ usage, heart function, _________ and skeletal system development

-basal metabolic rate
-glucose
-muscle

92

_________ – inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates incorporation of calcium into the bones

Calcitonin

93

Calcitonin – inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates incorporation of _________ into the bones

calcium

94

_________ – will result in low body temp, low energy, weight gain, elevated cholesterol, memory impairment, low BP, constipation, and sterility

Hypothyroidism

95

Hypothyroidism – will result in low body temp, low energy, _________ gain, elevated cholesterol, _________ impairment, low BP, _________, and sterility

-weight
-memory
-constipation

96

_________ – will result in elevated body temp, weight loss, irritability, personality changes, high BP, diarrhea, and impotence

Hyperthyroidism

97

Hyperthyroidism – will result in elevated body temp, weight loss, _________, personality changes, high BP, _________, and impotence

-irritability
-diarrhea

98

_________ - stimulates osteoclasts to elevate level of calcium in the blood

PTH

99

functions of the Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands -

-Produce _________ and _________
-Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine are involved in “fight or flight”

-testosterone
-estrogen

100

functions of the Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands -

-Produce testosterone and estrogen
- _________ (adrenaline) and _________ are involved in “fight or flight”

-Epinephrine
-norepinephrine

101

Adrenal glands Produce steroids from cholesterol
-Functions:

-Regulate _________ and potassium concentrations
-Influence energy _________

-sodium
-metabolism

102

Pineal gland Secretes _________

melatonin