List #2 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > List #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in List #2 Deck (45):
1

hydrogen bonds

Weak bond between a hydrogen atom and an atom of oxygen or nitrogen.

2

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

The genetic material; a double-stranded polymer of nucleotides, each containing a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base, and the sugar deoxyribose.

3

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)

Single stranded polymer of nucleotides, in which each nucleotide includes a phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and the sugar ribose.

4

micrometers

A micrometer equals one thousandth of a millimeter and is symbolized by μm.

5

tight junctions

the fusion of integral proteins of the lateral cell membranes of adjacent epithelial cells, limiting transepithelial permeability. These cells line the small intestine.

6

desmosomes

Specialized action between cells, which serves as a "spot weld." These cells can be found on the outer skin layer

7

glycoproteins

Compound composed of a carbohydrate and a protein

8

glycolipids

A glycolipid is a lipid that has an attached carbohydrate; its function is to contribute energy and act as a marker for cellular recognition

9

endoplasmic reticulum

Organelle composed of a network of connected membranous tubules and vesicles

10

ribosomes

Organelle imposed of RNA and protein that provides structural support and enzymes for protein synthesis.

11

Golgi apparatus

Organelle that prepares and modifies cellular products for secretion.

12

vesicle trafficking

The transport of substance into and out of cells by fleets of vesicles.

13

mitochondria

Organelle housing enzymes that catalyze aerobic reactions of cellular respiration.

14

adenosine triphosphate

Organic molecule that transfers energy, used in cellular processes; ATP

15

lysosomes

Organelle that contains digestive enzymes

16

centrioles

Cellular structure built of microtubules that organizes the mitotic spindle.

17

cilia

Microscopic, hairlike extensions of the exposed surfaces of most cells.

18

cell nucleus

-A relatively large, usually spherical, structure that contains the genetic material(DNA) that directs the activities of the cell.
-It contains a fluid in which other structures are suspended in it: chromosomes and a nucleolus.

19

nucleolus

The dense core of an atom that is composed of protons and neutrons; cellular structure enclosed by a double bilayer nuclear envelope and containing DNA; masses of interneuron cell bodies in the CNS.

20

chromatin

The complex of DNA and protein making up the cell's 46 chromosomes.

21

simple squamous epithelium

Description: Single layer, flattened cells
Function: Filtration, diffusion, osmosis, covers surface
Location: Air sacs of lungs(alveoli), walls of capillaries, linings of blood and lymph vessels, part of the membranes lining body cavities and covering viscera

22

dense fibrous connective tissue

Description: Bundles of collagenous fibers in parallel rows in a fluid matrix, few fibroblasts
Function: Connection, protection
Location: tendons, ligaments, dermis of skin

23

fibrocartilage

Strongest and most durable cartilage; made up of cartilage cells and many collagen fibers

24

cervical vertebrae

(7) These are the smallest vertebrae, but their bone tissues are denser than those in any other region of the vertebral column.
-Special Features: Spinous processes of second through sixth vertebrae are bifid, facets of atlas that articulate with occipital condyles of skull

25

thoracic vertebrae

(12) These vertebrae have transverse process project posteriorly at sharp angles. Each vertebrae has a long, pointed spinous process, which slopes downward, and a facet on each side of its body which articulates with a rib head.

26

acromion process

the lateral extension of the spine of the scapula, forming the highest point of the shoulder and connecting with the clavicle at a small oval surface in the middle of the spine. It gives attachment to the deltoid and trapezius muscles.

27

sacrum

(5 vertebrae fused) A triangular structure at the base of the vertebral column.
-Special Features: Posterior sacral foramina, auricular surfaces, sacral promontory, sacral canal, sacral hiatus, anterior sacral formina.

28

calcaneus

The largest of the tarsals, or heel bone, is below the talus where it projects backward to form the base of the heel. It helps support body weight and provides an attachment for muscles that move the foot.

29

symphysis pubis

a secondary cartilaginous joint (a joint made of hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage) located between the left and right pubic bones near the midline of the body.

30

xiphoid process

a small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower (inferior) part of the sternum

31

orbicularis oculi

*Origin: Maxillary and frontal bones
*Insertion: Skin around eye
*Action: Closes eye as in blinking

32

gluteus maximus

*Origin: Sacrum, coccyx, and posterior surface ilium
*Insertion: Posterior surface of femur and fascia of thigh
*Action: Extends hip

33

gastrocnemius

*Origin: Lateral and medial condyles of femur
*Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus
*Action: Plantar flexion of foot, flexes knee

34

rectus abdominis

*Origin: Crest of pubis and pubic symphysis
*Insertion: Xiphoid process of sternum and ribs 5-7
*Action: Compresses abdomen, flexes cerebral column

35

trapezius

*Origin: Occipital bone and spines of cervical and thoracic vertebrae
*Insertion: Clavicle, spine of the scapula, and the acromion process of scapula
*Origin: Rotates and retracts scapula, superior portion elevates scapula, and inferior portion depresses scapula

36

facilitated diffusion

Diffusion in which a protein channel or a carrier molecule transports a substance across a cell membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

37

osmotic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure needed to stop osmosis

38

hypertonic

Solution with a greater osmotic pressure than the solution to which it is compared

39

hypotonic

Solution with a lower osmotic pressure than the solution to which it is compared.

40

active transport

Process that requires energy and a carrier molecule to move a substance across a cel membrane against the concentration gradient

41

exocytosis

Transport of substances out of a cell in a membrane-bounded vesicle

42

endocytosis

Process by which a cell membrane envelopes a particle and draws it into the cell in a vesicle

43

interphase

Period between cell divisions when a cell metabolizes and prepares to divide

44

cell differentiation

The process by which primitive dividing cells, all of which originally appear identical, alter and diversify to form different tissues and organs.

45

oncogenes

Gene that normally controls cell division but when over expressed leads to cancer.