Flashcards in List #2 Deck (45):
Weak bond between a hydrogen atom and an atom of oxygen or nitrogen.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
The genetic material; a double-stranded polymer of nucleotides, each containing a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base, and the sugar deoxyribose.
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
Single stranded polymer of nucleotides, in which each nucleotide includes a phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and the sugar ribose.
A micrometer equals one thousandth of a millimeter and is symbolized by μm.
the fusion of integral proteins of the lateral cell membranes of adjacent epithelial cells, limiting transepithelial permeability. These cells line the small intestine.
Specialized action between cells, which serves as a "spot weld." These cells can be found on the outer skin layer
Compound composed of a carbohydrate and a protein
A glycolipid is a lipid that has an attached carbohydrate; its function is to contribute energy and act as a marker for cellular recognition
Organelle composed of a network of connected membranous tubules and vesicles
Organelle imposed of RNA and protein that provides structural support and enzymes for protein synthesis.
Organelle that prepares and modifies cellular products for secretion.
The transport of substance into and out of cells by fleets of vesicles.
Organelle housing enzymes that catalyze aerobic reactions of cellular respiration.
Organic molecule that transfers energy, used in cellular processes; ATP
Organelle that contains digestive enzymes
Cellular structure built of microtubules that organizes the mitotic spindle.
Microscopic, hairlike extensions of the exposed surfaces of most cells.
-A relatively large, usually spherical, structure that contains the genetic material(DNA) that directs the activities of the cell.
-It contains a fluid in which other structures are suspended in it: chromosomes and a nucleolus.
The dense core of an atom that is composed of protons and neutrons; cellular structure enclosed by a double bilayer nuclear envelope and containing DNA; masses of interneuron cell bodies in the CNS.
The complex of DNA and protein making up the cell's 46 chromosomes.
simple squamous epithelium
Description: Single layer, flattened cells
Function: Filtration, diffusion, osmosis, covers surface
Location: Air sacs of lungs(alveoli), walls of capillaries, linings of blood and lymph vessels, part of the membranes lining body cavities and covering viscera
dense fibrous connective tissue
Description: Bundles of collagenous fibers in parallel rows in a fluid matrix, few fibroblasts
Function: Connection, protection
Location: tendons, ligaments, dermis of skin
Strongest and most durable cartilage; made up of cartilage cells and many collagen fibers
(7) These are the smallest vertebrae, but their bone tissues are denser than those in any other region of the vertebral column.
-Special Features: Spinous processes of second through sixth vertebrae are bifid, facets of atlas that articulate with occipital condyles of skull
(12) These vertebrae have transverse process project posteriorly at sharp angles. Each vertebrae has a long, pointed spinous process, which slopes downward, and a facet on each side of its body which articulates with a rib head.
the lateral extension of the spine of the scapula, forming the highest point of the shoulder and connecting with the clavicle at a small oval surface in the middle of the spine. It gives attachment to the deltoid and trapezius muscles.
(5 vertebrae fused) A triangular structure at the base of the vertebral column.
-Special Features: Posterior sacral foramina, auricular surfaces, sacral promontory, sacral canal, sacral hiatus, anterior sacral formina.
The largest of the tarsals, or heel bone, is below the talus where it projects backward to form the base of the heel. It helps support body weight and provides an attachment for muscles that move the foot.
a secondary cartilaginous joint (a joint made of hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage) located between the left and right pubic bones near the midline of the body.
a small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower (inferior) part of the sternum
*Origin: Maxillary and frontal bones
*Insertion: Skin around eye
*Action: Closes eye as in blinking
*Origin: Sacrum, coccyx, and posterior surface ilium
*Insertion: Posterior surface of femur and fascia of thigh
*Action: Extends hip
*Origin: Lateral and medial condyles of femur
*Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus
*Action: Plantar flexion of foot, flexes knee
*Origin: Crest of pubis and pubic symphysis
*Insertion: Xiphoid process of sternum and ribs 5-7
*Action: Compresses abdomen, flexes cerebral column
*Origin: Occipital bone and spines of cervical and thoracic vertebrae
*Insertion: Clavicle, spine of the scapula, and the acromion process of scapula
*Origin: Rotates and retracts scapula, superior portion elevates scapula, and inferior portion depresses scapula
Diffusion in which a protein channel or a carrier molecule transports a substance across a cell membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Hydrostatic pressure needed to stop osmosis
Solution with a greater osmotic pressure than the solution to which it is compared
Solution with a lower osmotic pressure than the solution to which it is compared.
Process that requires energy and a carrier molecule to move a substance across a cel membrane against the concentration gradient
Transport of substances out of a cell in a membrane-bounded vesicle
Process by which a cell membrane envelopes a particle and draws it into the cell in a vesicle
Period between cell divisions when a cell metabolizes and prepares to divide
The process by which primitive dividing cells, all of which originally appear identical, alter and diversify to form different tissues and organs.