Chapter 7 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Review Deck (56):
1

epiphysis

- Located at the end of a long bone and articulates with another bone to form a joint

2

articular cartilage

- A layer of hyaline cartilage that coats the articulating portion of the epiphysis.

3

diaphysis

- The shaft of the bone

4

metaphysis

-the widening part of the bone between the diaphysis and epiphysis

5

periosteum

- A tough, vascular covering of dense connective tissue, except for the articular cartilage on its ends.
- Form and repair bone tissue

6

compact bone

-tightly packed tissue

7

spongy bone

-thick layers of compact bone on their surfaces

8

short bone

-Short bones: cube like, with roughly equal lengths and widths. Tarsals and Carpals

9

flat bone

-Flat bones: platelike structures with road surfaces, such as ribs, scapula, and some bones in the skull

10

irregular bone

-Irregular bones: variety of shapes, most are connected to several other bones. Vertebrae that compose the back bone and many facial bones.

11

medullary cavity

- A hollow chamber formed by a tube in the diaphysis of a long bone.

12

endosteum

-a thin membrane containing bone-forming cells
-it lines the medullar cavities

13

marrow

-a specialized type of connective tissue

14

osteocytes

-bone cells

15

osteon(Haversian canal)

-central canal of bone cells

16

lamellae

-layers of extracellular matrix in compact bone

17

lacunae

-bony chambers, which house osteocytes

18

canaliculi

-way for cells to travel throughout the bone

19

perforating canals(Volkmann's canals)

connects the central canals

20

intramembranous bones

-flat bones
-skull, clavicle, sternum, mandible, maxillae, and zygomatic

21

endochondral bones

-develops from hyaline cartilage

22

osteoblasts

-bone forming cells

23

osteoclasts

- Large multinucleate cells that break down the calcified matrix.

24

intramembranous ossification

- The process of replacing embryonic connective tissue to form an intramembranous bone.

25

endochondral ossification

- The process of forming an endochondral bone by replacement of hyaline cartilage.

26

epiphyseal plate

- As spongy bone is deposited in the diaphysis and in the epiphysis, a band of cartilage called epiphyseal plate.
- Allow for growth of bones; growth plates

27

Vitamin D

-necessary for proper absorption of dietary calcium in the small intestine

28

Vitamin A

-necessary for osteoblast and osteoclast activity during normal development

29

Vitamin C

-required for collagen synthesis

30

growth hormone

-stimulates division of cartilage cells int he epiphyseal plates

31

thyroxine

-stimulates replacement of cartilage in the epiphyseal plates of long bones with bone tissue

32

parathyroid hormone

-stimulates an increase in the number and activity of osteoclasts

33

hematopoiesis

-The process of blood cell formation, which regis in the yolk sac outside of the embryo
- Areas where blood cells are produced: bone marrow, liver (fetal development), spleen (fetal dev.), and yolk sack (fetal dev.)

34

red marrow

-red blood cells(erythrocytes)
-white blood cells(leukocytes)
-blood platelets form

35

yellow marrow

-stores fat
-does not produce blood cells

36

hyoid bone

- Located in the neck between the lower jaw and larynx.
- It doesn't articulate with any other bones but is fixed in position by muscles and ligaments.
- supports the tongue and is an attachment for certain muscles that help move the tongue during swallowing

37

malleus

-An auditory ossicle which are attached to the wall of the tympanic cavity by tiny ligaments and are covered by mucous membrane
- The tympanic membrane vibrates the malleus which vibrates the incus

38

incus

-An auditory ossicle which are attached to the wall of the tympanic cavity by tiny ligaments and are covered by mucous membrane
-Pases the vibration on to the stapes

39

stapes

-An auditory ossicle which are attached to the wall of the tympanic cavity by tiny ligaments and are covered by mucous membrane
-this vibration its like piston at the oval window and transfers the vibrations to a fluid within the inner ear

40

deltoid tuberosity

- A rough V shaped area near the middle of the humerus's bony shaft on the lateral side

41

fovea capitis

- Found on the head of the femur its a pit that marks the attachment of a ligament

42

ischial spine

- A sharp projection located above the ischial tuberosity, near the junction of the ilium and ischium

43

manubrium

- One of the three parts of the sternum. It articulates with the clavicles

44

mandibular fossa

- Depressions found in the internal ear structures housed in the temporal bone.

45

internal & external meatuses

-Internal is located on the floor of the cranial cavity in the temporal bone. Branches of facial and vestibulocochlear nerves and blood vessels (7&8).
-External is located near the inferior margin which leads inward to parts of the ear.

46

supraorbital & infraorbital foramina

-Supra is in the frontal bone and has blood vessels and nerves that pass to the tissues in the forehead.
-Infra is located below the orbit in the maxillary bone. Infraorbital blood vessels and nerves pass through it.

47

occipital condyles

- Located on each side of the foramen magnum, it articulates with the first vertebra(atlas).

48

coronoid process of mandible

- Provides attachments for muscles used in chewing.

49

mandibular fossa

- Location: Near point of jaw in mandible
- Major structures: Mental nerve and blood vessels

50

sesamoid bones

- A special type of short bone. Usually small and nodular and embedded in a tendon adjacent to a joint, where the tendon is compressed. The patella is a sesamoid bone.

51

wormian bones

- extra bones found in sutures

52

coccyx

- the lowest part of the vertebral column and is usually composed of four vertebrae that fuse between the ages of twenty-five and thirty

53

capitulum

- One of the two smooth condyles on the humerus and is on the lateral side

54

trochlea

- One of the two smooth condyles on the humerus it is on the medial side and is shaped like a pulley.

55

acromegaly

- The secretion of excess growth hormone, in which hands, feet, and jaw enlarge.

56

long bones

-Long bones: longitudinal axes and expanded ends. Humerus and Femur bones.