List #4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in List #4 Deck (50):
1

basement membrane

- A thin, extracellular layer that anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue.

2

apical surface

-The superficial layer on top of the epithelium

3

basal surface

-The surface above the dermis but under the epithelium

4

cilia

- Microscopic hair like extensions of the exposed surfaces of most cells

5

microvilli

- Cells specialized for absorption typically have many tiny, cylindrical processes, called microvilli, extending from their free surfaces.

6

stratified squamous epithelium

-Description: many layers, top cells flattened
-Function: protection
-Location: linings of oral cavity, vagina, and anal cavity

7

simple columnar epithelium

-Description: single layer, elongated cells
-Function: Protection, secretion, absorption
-Location: Lining of the stomach and small intestines

8

stratified columnar epithelium

-Description: Top layer of elongated cells, lower layers of cube-shaped cells
-Function: protection, secretion
-Location: male urethra, linings of larger ducts of excretory glands

9

exocrine glands

-Glands that secrete their products into ducts that open onto surfaces, such as the skin or the lining of the digestive tract.

10

endocrine glands

-Glands that secrete their products into tissue fluid or blood

11

macrophages

-Histiocytes, originate as white blood cells and are almost as numerous as fibroblasts in some connective tissues.

12

fibroblasts

-The most common type of fixed cell in connective tissue.
-Large, star-shaped cells produce fibers by secreting proteins into the extracellular matrix of connective tissues.

13

mast cells

-Large and widely distributed in connective tissues, where they are usually near blood vessels.
-They release heparin, a compound that prevents blood clotting.
-They also release histamine, which promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies

14

adipose tissue

-Description: cells in fluid-gel matrix
-Function: protects, insulates, and stores fat
-Location: beneath the skin, around the kidneys, and on the surface of the heart

15

elastic cartilage

-Description: cells in solid-gel matrix
-Function: supports, protects, provides flexible framework

16

neuroglia

- They divide and are crucial to the functioning of neurons
- These cells support and bind the components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply growth factors and nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels.

17

epidermis

- Composed of stratified squamous epithelium, it is the outer layer

18

dermis

- The inner layer, it is thicker than the epidermis and is made up of connective tissue containing collage and elastic fibers, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood

19

subcutaneous layer(hypodermis)

- Beneath the dermis, masses of areolar and adipose tissues bind the skin to underlying organs. These tissues are not part of the skin

20

melanocytes

- Specialized cells in the epidermis that produce the pigment melanin from the amino acid tyrosine in organelles

21

keratinocytes

- proteins produced as epidermal cells die and harden

22

sagittal suture

- They fuse together the parietal bones

23

lambdoidal suture

- The occipital bone joins the parietal bones along the lambdoid suture.

24

coronal suture

- The parietal bones are fused at the midline along the sagittal suture, and they meet the frontal bone along the coronal suture.

25

squamosal suture

- A temporal bone on each side of the skull joins the parietal bone along this suture.

26

jugular foramen

- The opening between the temporal and occipital bones, it accommodates the internal jugular vein

27

crista galli

- Projecting upward into the cranial cavity between eh cribriform plates is a triangular process of the ethmoid bone.
-Membranes that enclose the brain attach to this process

28

superior orbital fissures

- Found in the sphenoid bone
- Contains cranial cavities 3 oculomotr,4 trochlear,5 trygeminal(ophthalmic branch), and 6 abducens

29

optic canals

-Found in the sphenoid bone on the lesser wings
- Contains cranial cavity 2 optic nerves.

30

middle nasal conchae

- Project inward from the lateral portions of the ethmoid bone toward the perpendicular plate.
-These bony plates support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity

31

mental foramina

- Branches of the blood vessels and the nerve emerge from the mandible through the mental foramen, which opens on the outside near the point of the jaw
- It supplies the tissues of the chin and lower lip
-Contains cranial nerve 5: trygeminal (mandibular branch)

32

mandibular condyles

- They articulate with the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones, whereas the coronoid processes provide attachments for muscles used in chewing.

33

vertebrosternal ribs

- The first seven rib pairs, called the true ribs, join the sternum directly by their costal cartilages. (1-7)

34

vertebrochondral ribs

-The upper three false ribs(8-10)

35

vertebral ribs

- The lower two pairs of ribs are also called floating ribs. (11-12)

36

costal cartilage

- Bars of hyaline cartilage that serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax.

37

greater sciatic notch

- Found below the posterior superior iliac spine in a deep indentation.
- A number of nerves and blood vessels pass

38

obturator foramen

- The largest foramen in the body
- The hole in-between the pubis and ischium

39

greater trochanter

- By the head of the femur is superior.
-Provides attachments for muscles of the lower limbs and buttocks

40

lesser trochanter

- By the head of the femur is inferior.
- Provides attachments for muscles of the lower limbs and buttocks

41

medial malleolus

- The tibia expands to form a prominence on the medial side of the ankle called the medial malleolus.
- Attachment for ligaments

42

lateral malleolus

- The fibula's ends are slightly enlarge into a proximal head and distal lateral malleolus.
- Articulates with the ankle and protrudes on the lateral side

43

tibialis anterior

-Origin: Lateral condyle and lateral surface of tibia
-Insertion: Tarsal bone and first metatarsal
-Action: Dorsiflexion and inversion of foot

44

soleus

-Origin: Head and shaft of fibula and posterior surface of tibia
-Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus
-Action: Plantar flexion of foot

45

latissimus dorsi

-Origin: Spines of sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic vertebrae, iliac crest, and lower ribs
-Insertion: Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
-Action: Extends shoulder, adducts and rotates the arm medially, or depresses and retracts the shoulder

46

lateral pterygoid

-Origin: Sphenoid bone
-Insertion: Anterior surface of mandibular condyle
-Action: Depresses and protracts mandible and moves it from side to side

47

deltoid

-Origin: Acromion process, spine of the scapula, and the clavicle
-Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humorous
-Action: Lateral portion abducts arm, anterior portion flexes shoulder, posterior portion extends shoulder

48

supraspinatus

-Origin: Supraspinous fossa of scapula
-Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
-Action: Abducts arm

49

tensor fascia latae

-Origin: Anterior iliac crest
-Insertion: Iliotibial tract(fascia of thigh)
-Action: Abducts thigh, flexes hip, and rotates thigh medially

50

vastus lateralis

-Origin: Greater trochanter and posterior surface of femur
-Insertion: Patella by tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
-Action: Extends knee