Flashcards in List #4 Deck (50):
- A thin, extracellular layer that anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue.
-The superficial layer on top of the epithelium
-The surface above the dermis but under the epithelium
- Microscopic hair like extensions of the exposed surfaces of most cells
- Cells specialized for absorption typically have many tiny, cylindrical processes, called microvilli, extending from their free surfaces.
stratified squamous epithelium
-Description: many layers, top cells flattened
-Location: linings of oral cavity, vagina, and anal cavity
simple columnar epithelium
-Description: single layer, elongated cells
-Function: Protection, secretion, absorption
-Location: Lining of the stomach and small intestines
stratified columnar epithelium
-Description: Top layer of elongated cells, lower layers of cube-shaped cells
-Function: protection, secretion
-Location: male urethra, linings of larger ducts of excretory glands
-Glands that secrete their products into ducts that open onto surfaces, such as the skin or the lining of the digestive tract.
-Glands that secrete their products into tissue fluid or blood
-Histiocytes, originate as white blood cells and are almost as numerous as fibroblasts in some connective tissues.
-The most common type of fixed cell in connective tissue.
-Large, star-shaped cells produce fibers by secreting proteins into the extracellular matrix of connective tissues.
-Large and widely distributed in connective tissues, where they are usually near blood vessels.
-They release heparin, a compound that prevents blood clotting.
-They also release histamine, which promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies
-Description: cells in fluid-gel matrix
-Function: protects, insulates, and stores fat
-Location: beneath the skin, around the kidneys, and on the surface of the heart
-Description: cells in solid-gel matrix
-Function: supports, protects, provides flexible framework
- They divide and are crucial to the functioning of neurons
- These cells support and bind the components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply growth factors and nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels.
- Composed of stratified squamous epithelium, it is the outer layer
- The inner layer, it is thicker than the epidermis and is made up of connective tissue containing collage and elastic fibers, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood
- Beneath the dermis, masses of areolar and adipose tissues bind the skin to underlying organs. These tissues are not part of the skin
- Specialized cells in the epidermis that produce the pigment melanin from the amino acid tyrosine in organelles
- proteins produced as epidermal cells die and harden
- They fuse together the parietal bones
- The occipital bone joins the parietal bones along the lambdoid suture.
- The parietal bones are fused at the midline along the sagittal suture, and they meet the frontal bone along the coronal suture.
- A temporal bone on each side of the skull joins the parietal bone along this suture.
- The opening between the temporal and occipital bones, it accommodates the internal jugular vein
- Projecting upward into the cranial cavity between eh cribriform plates is a triangular process of the ethmoid bone.
-Membranes that enclose the brain attach to this process
superior orbital fissures
- Found in the sphenoid bone
- Contains cranial cavities 3 oculomotr,4 trochlear,5 trygeminal(ophthalmic branch), and 6 abducens
-Found in the sphenoid bone on the lesser wings
- Contains cranial cavity 2 optic nerves.
middle nasal conchae
- Project inward from the lateral portions of the ethmoid bone toward the perpendicular plate.
-These bony plates support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity
- Branches of the blood vessels and the nerve emerge from the mandible through the mental foramen, which opens on the outside near the point of the jaw
- It supplies the tissues of the chin and lower lip
-Contains cranial nerve 5: trygeminal (mandibular branch)
- They articulate with the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones, whereas the coronoid processes provide attachments for muscles used in chewing.
- The first seven rib pairs, called the true ribs, join the sternum directly by their costal cartilages. (1-7)
-The upper three false ribs(8-10)
- The lower two pairs of ribs are also called floating ribs. (11-12)
- Bars of hyaline cartilage that serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax.
greater sciatic notch
- Found below the posterior superior iliac spine in a deep indentation.
- A number of nerves and blood vessels pass
- The largest foramen in the body
- The hole in-between the pubis and ischium
- By the head of the femur is superior.
-Provides attachments for muscles of the lower limbs and buttocks
- By the head of the femur is inferior.
- Provides attachments for muscles of the lower limbs and buttocks
- The tibia expands to form a prominence on the medial side of the ankle called the medial malleolus.
- Attachment for ligaments
- The fibula's ends are slightly enlarge into a proximal head and distal lateral malleolus.
- Articulates with the ankle and protrudes on the lateral side
-Origin: Lateral condyle and lateral surface of tibia
-Insertion: Tarsal bone and first metatarsal
-Action: Dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
-Origin: Head and shaft of fibula and posterior surface of tibia
-Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus
-Action: Plantar flexion of foot
-Origin: Spines of sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic vertebrae, iliac crest, and lower ribs
-Insertion: Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
-Action: Extends shoulder, adducts and rotates the arm medially, or depresses and retracts the shoulder
-Origin: Sphenoid bone
-Insertion: Anterior surface of mandibular condyle
-Action: Depresses and protracts mandible and moves it from side to side
-Origin: Acromion process, spine of the scapula, and the clavicle
-Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humorous
-Action: Lateral portion abducts arm, anterior portion flexes shoulder, posterior portion extends shoulder
-Origin: Supraspinous fossa of scapula
-Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
-Action: Abducts arm
tensor fascia latae
-Origin: Anterior iliac crest
-Insertion: Iliotibial tract(fascia of thigh)
-Action: Abducts thigh, flexes hip, and rotates thigh medially