List #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in List #3 Deck (41):

zygomatic bones

- Responsible for the prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the eyes.
-Each bone has a temporal process, which extends posteriorly to join the zygomatic process of a temporal bone.



- A long bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow.
-Its upper end is a smooth, rounded head that fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula.


intertubercular groove

-The humerus has two processes: the greater tubercle and the lesser tubercle. Between these two processes is the intertubercular groove.
-A tendon passes through the groove from a muscle in the arm(biceps brachii) to the shoulder.


coxal bones

-Consists of two bones, pelvic bones or innominate bones, which articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly.



- The lowest portion of the hip bone, is L-shaped, with its angle, the ischial tuberosity, pointing posteriorly and downward.



- The largest and most superior portion of the hip bone, flares outward, forming the prominence of the hip.



-Constitutes the anterior portion of the hip bone. The two pubic bones come together at the midline to form a joint called the pubic symphysis. The angle these bones form below the symphysis si the pubic arch.


ischial tuberosity

- The tuberosity has a rough surface that provides attachments for ligaments and lower limb muscles.
- It supports the weight of the body when sitting.
- Above the ischial tuberosity, near the junction of the ilium and ischium, is a sharp projection called the ischial spine.



- The fusion of the ilium, ischium, and the pubis.
- This depression, on the lateral surface of the hip bone, receives the rounded head of the femur of thigh bone.



- Also called the thigh bone
- The longest bone in the body and extends from the hip to the knee.
- A large rounded head at its proximal end projects medially into the acetabulum of the hip bone.


linea aspera

- A longitudinal crest on the posterior surface in the middle third of the shaft.
This rough strip is an attachment for several muscles.



- Also called the shin bone.
- The larger of the two leg bones and is located on the medial side.
- Its proximal end is expanded into medial and lateral condyles, which have concave surfaced and articulate with the condyles of the femur.


sphenoid bone

- It is wedged between several other bones in the anterior portion of the cranium, and consists of a central part and two winglike structures that extend laterally toward each side of the skull.
-The bone helps form the base o the cranium, the sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbits


ethmoid bone

- It is located in front of the sphenoid bone, and consists of two masses: one on each side of the nasal cavity, joined horizontal by thin cribriform plates.


sella turcica

- Along the midline within the cranial cavity, a portion of the spend bone indents to form the saddle-shaped sella turcica.
- In this depression lies the pituitary gland, which hangs from the base of the brain by a stalk.


cribriform plates

- These plates form part o the roof of the nasal cavity, and nerves associated with the sense of smell pass through tiny openings in them.


palatine bones

- The L shaped bones are located behind the maxillae.
- The horizontal portions of these bones form the posterior section of the hard palate and the door of the nasal cavity.
-The perpendicular portions of the bones help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.


perpendicular plate

- Projects downward int he midline from the cribriform plates to form most of the nasal septum.


nasal conchae

- Delicate, scroll-shaped plates called the superior nasal concha and the middle nasal concha project inward from the lateral portions of the ethmoid bone toward the perpendicular plate.
- The bony plates support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity.



Origin: Zygomatic bone
Insertion: skin and muscle at corner of mouth
Action: Elevates corner of mouth as when smiling


orbicularis oris

Origin: Maxillary and frontal bones
Insertion: Skin around the eye
Action: Closes eye as in blinking



Origin: Temporal bone
Insertion: Coronoid proces and anterior ramus of mandible
Action: Elevates and retracts mandible


rhomboideus major

Origin: Spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Medial border of scapula
Action: Retracts, elevates, and rotates scapula


pectoralis minor

Origin: Anterior surface of ribs 3-5
Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
Action: Depresses and protracts scapula, elevates ribs during forceful inhalation



Origin: Lower edge of pubic symphysis
Insertion: Proximal, medial surface of tibia
Action: Adducts thigh and flexes knee


rectus femoris

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine and margin of acetabulum
Insertion: Patella by tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
Action: Extends knee flexes hip.


biceps femoris

Origin: Ischia tuberosity and linea aspera of femur
Insertion: Head of fibula
Action: Flexes knee, rotates leg laterally, and extends hip


transitional epithelium

- Specialized to change in response to increased tension.
- It forms the inner lining of the urinary bladder and lines the ureters and the superior urethra



- Also called histiocytes, originate as white blood cells and are almost as numerous as fibroblasts in some connective tissues.
-They are usually attached to fibers but can detach and actively one about.
-As scavenger cells, they can clear foreign particles from tissues, providing an important defense against infection.


smooth muscle

- Smooth because its cells do not have striations.
- These cells are shorter than those of skeletal muscle and are spindle-shaped, each with a single, centrally located nucleus.
-Comprises the walls of hollow internal organs, such as the stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus, and blood vessels.


cardiac muscle

- Only found in the heart
-Its cells, striated and branched, are joined end-to-end, and interconnected in complex networks.
-This tissue makes up the bulk of the heart and pumps blood through the heart chambers and into blood vessels.


elastic cartilage

-More flexible than hyaline cartilage because its extracellular matrix has a dense network of elastic fibers.
-It provides the framework for the external ears and parts of the larynx.



- Fibers and ground substance in the spaces between cells, especially between connective tissue cells.


muscle striations

- Threadlike cells have alternating list and dark cross-markings.


intercalated disks

- Where one cell touches another cell is a specialized intercellular junction, seen only in cardiac tissue


neuroglial cells

- Nervous tissue includes abundant neuroglia, which divide and are crucial to the functioning of neurons.
- These cells support and bind the components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply growth factors and nutrients to neurons by contacting them to blow vessels.


dense connective tissue

-Thicker, interwoven, and more randomly distributed than fibers of dense regular connective tissue.
-Found in the dermis, which is the deep skin layer.



- Cartilage cells, called chondrocytes, occupy small cambers called lacunae and lie completely within the extracellular matrix.


bone lamellae

- In compact bone, cells called osteoblasts deposit bony matrix in thin layers called lamellae, which form concentric patterns around longitudinal tubes called central canals which contain capillaries.


bone canaliculi

- The bone cells have many cytoplasmic processes that extend outward and pass through tiny tubes in the extracellular matrix.
- As a result, materials can move rapidly between blood vessels and bone cells.



- A cartilaginous structure is enclosed in a covering of connective tissue.
- Cartilage cells near the perichondrium obtain nutrients from these vessels by diffusion, aided by the water in the extracellular matrix.