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Flashcards in List #3 Deck (41)
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zygomatic bones

- Responsible for the prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the eyes.
-Each bone has a temporal process, which extends posteriorly to join the zygomatic process of a temporal bone.



- A long bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow.
-Its upper end is a smooth, rounded head that fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula.


intertubercular groove

-The humerus has two processes: the greater tubercle and the lesser tubercle. Between these two processes is the intertubercular groove.
-A tendon passes through the groove from a muscle in the arm(biceps brachii) to the shoulder.


coxal bones

-Consists of two bones, pelvic bones or innominate bones, which articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly.



- The lowest portion of the hip bone, is L-shaped, with its angle, the ischial tuberosity, pointing posteriorly and downward.



- The largest and most superior portion of the hip bone, flares outward, forming the prominence of the hip.



-Constitutes the anterior portion of the hip bone. The two pubic bones come together at the midline to form a joint called the pubic symphysis. The angle these bones form below the symphysis si the pubic arch.


ischial tuberosity

- The tuberosity has a rough surface that provides attachments for ligaments and lower limb muscles.
- It supports the weight of the body when sitting.
- Above the ischial tuberosity, near the junction of the ilium and ischium, is a sharp projection called the ischial spine.



- The fusion of the ilium, ischium, and the pubis.
- This depression, on the lateral surface of the hip bone, receives the rounded head of the femur of thigh bone.



- Also called the thigh bone
- The longest bone in the body and extends from the hip to the knee.
- A large rounded head at its proximal end projects medially into the acetabulum of the hip bone.


linea aspera

- A longitudinal crest on the posterior surface in the middle third of the shaft.
This rough strip is an attachment for several muscles.



- Also called the shin bone.
- The larger of the two leg bones and is located on the medial side.
- Its proximal end is expanded into medial and lateral condyles, which have concave surfaced and articulate with the condyles of the femur.


sphenoid bone

- It is wedged between several other bones in the anterior portion of the cranium, and consists of a central part and two winglike structures that extend laterally toward each side of the skull.
-The bone helps form the base o the cranium, the sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbits


ethmoid bone

- It is located in front of the sphenoid bone, and consists of two masses: one on each side of the nasal cavity, joined horizontal by thin cribriform plates.


sella turcica

- Along the midline within the cranial cavity, a portion of the spend bone indents to form the saddle-shaped sella turcica.
- In this depression lies the pituitary gland, which hangs from the base of the brain by a stalk.


cribriform plates

- These plates form part o the roof of the nasal cavity, and nerves associated with the sense of smell pass through tiny openings in them.


palatine bones

- The L shaped bones are located behind the maxillae.
- The horizontal portions of these bones form the posterior section of the hard palate and the door of the nasal cavity.
-The perpendicular portions of the bones help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.


perpendicular plate

- Projects downward int he midline from the cribriform plates to form most of the nasal septum.


nasal conchae

- Delicate, scroll-shaped plates called the superior nasal concha and the middle nasal concha project inward from the lateral portions of the ethmoid bone toward the perpendicular plate.
- The bony plates support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity.



Origin: Zygomatic bone
Insertion: skin and muscle at corner of mouth
Action: Elevates corner of mouth as when smiling


orbicularis oris

Origin: Maxillary and frontal bones
Insertion: Skin around the eye
Action: Closes eye as in blinking



Origin: Temporal bone
Insertion: Coronoid proces and anterior ramus of mandible
Action: Elevates and retracts mandible


rhomboideus major

Origin: Spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Medial border of scapula
Action: Retracts, elevates, and rotates scapula


pectoralis minor

Origin: Anterior surface of ribs 3-5
Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
Action: Depresses and protracts scapula, elevates ribs during forceful inhalation



Origin: Lower edge of pubic symphysis
Insertion: Proximal, medial surface of tibia
Action: Adducts thigh and flexes knee


rectus femoris

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine and margin of acetabulum
Insertion: Patella by tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
Action: Extends knee flexes hip.


biceps femoris

Origin: Ischia tuberosity and linea aspera of femur
Insertion: Head of fibula
Action: Flexes knee, rotates leg laterally, and extends hip


transitional epithelium

- Specialized to change in response to increased tension.
- It forms the inner lining of the urinary bladder and lines the ureters and the superior urethra



- Also called histiocytes, originate as white blood cells and are almost as numerous as fibroblasts in some connective tissues.
-They are usually attached to fibers but can detach and actively one about.
-As scavenger cells, they can clear foreign particles from tissues, providing an important defense against infection.


smooth muscle

- Smooth because its cells do not have striations.
- These cells are shorter than those of skeletal muscle and are spindle-shaped, each with a single, centrally located nucleus.
-Comprises the walls of hollow internal organs, such as the stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus, and blood vessels.