Test 3 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Test 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (148):
1

What are the two cells of nervous tissue?

neurons and glia

2

Which cranial nerve controls the Lateral Ptyregoid?

V. Trigeminal Nerve

3

What is another name for a neuron's cell body?

Perikaryon

4

What is another name for chromatophilic substance?

Nissl bodies

5

Nissl substance

Membranous organelles located in neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. Rough endoplasmic reticulum making peptide chains. It is not found in either axons or the axon hillock

6

Lower Motor Neurons are located where?

Brainstem and Spinal Cord

7

Which neurotransmitter does lower motor neurons use to communicate with the muscles?

Acetylcholine

8

How many pairs of spinal nerves are their?

31 pairs

9

Myasthenia gravis

Autoimmune disease that decreases cholinergic receptors. Acetylcholine is inhibited to help with this disease.

10

Rigor Mortis

stiffening of the body after death, contraction of the muscles.

11

Oligodendrocytes

-Glia of CNS found in high density in white matter
-produces myelin

12

Central Canal

Ventricle that contains Cerebral Spinal Fluid in center of spinal cord

13

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Stores and sequesters calcium ions in muscle cells; smooth endoplasmic reticulum

14

Peristalsis

Smooth muscle contraction of tubular internal organs; digestive tract

15

I-bands

-Region of sarcomere with only actin present
-they shorten when sarcomere contracts
-held by direct attachments to structures called Z lines

16

Nodes of Ranvier

Unmyelinated regions of axons

17

tropomyosin

Protein located in grooves of actin that blocks myosin attachment

18

myosin crossbridges

-They connect to actin and pull actin toward the center, which contracts the sarcomere
-Loaded with ATP

19

Sliding filament hypothesis

the contraction of sarcomeres; theory of muscle contraction

20

myosin

proteins(thick & dark) that, with actin, forms the filaments that interact to contract muscle fibers

21

actin

Protein in a muscle fiber that forms the thin filaments(light) that slide between filaments of the protein myosin, shortening the muscle fibers.

22

Sarcomeres

the striations form a repeating pater of units along the muscle fiber

23

A-bands

the second part of the striation pattern, which composes thick myosin filaments overlapping thin actin filaments

24

ATPases

-an enzyme found in myosin heads
-it catalyzes the breakdown ATP to ADP and a phosphate

25

Tropomyosin

-rod-shaped and occupy the longitudinal grooves of the actin helix
-Prevents myosin cross bridges from binding/attaching to actin

26

Troponin

-High affinity for calcium
-attached to actin

27

Basic process of muscle contraction

Calcium is attached to troponin causing it to change shape and push tropomyosin out of the actin helix. With the removal of tropomyosin the myosin cross bridges can now attach to the actin, which causes the sarcomere to contract

28

Muscle relaxation

cross bridges have to be loaded with ATP, which allows the cross bridges to disconnect from the actin.

29

Triads

Region where the actin and myosin filaments overlap

30

Neuromuscular junction

-axon terminal of lower motor neuron
-synaptic cleft
-motor end plate

31

Motor end plates

-Where nuclei and mitochondria are abundant and the sarcolemma is extensively folded

32

Motor unit

controlled by a motor neuron and a muscle fiber

33

synaptic cleft

a small gap that separates the membrane of the neuron and the membrane of the muscle fiber

34

Neurotransmitter

Biological messenger molecules that convey neural information

35

3 ways to terminate a neurotransmitter

1)simple diffusion
2)enzymatic degradation
3)preuptake(pre-synaptic)

36

synaptic vesicles

tiny vesicles that stores neurotransmitters

37

dendrites

small cellular processes that receive input

38

axons

carries information away from the cell in the form of impulses

39

Schwan cells

-neuroglia that encase the large axons of peripheral neurons in lipid-rich sheaths(PNS)
-make the axons faster; insulates; myelinated

40

Saltatory conduction

jumps from Node of Ranvier to Node of Ranvier. Only on myelinated axons

41

Reflexes

-designed to be quick for protection reasons
-efferent information
-lower motor neurons

42

What makes action potentials different?

Frequency

43

How many neurons are involved in the patellar knee jerk reflex?

2 its the simplest reflex of the human body

44

Occulomotor

-comes off the midbrain
-highest cranial nerve

45

Axon hillock

multipolar neuron, the first part of the axon; makes the action potential

46

astrocytes

-provide support and hold structures together with abundant cellular processes
-aid metabolism

47

ependyma

form the inner lining of the central canal that extends downward through the spinal cord

48

choroid plexuses

-specialized capillaries associated with he ventricles of the brain
-they regulate the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid

49

myelin

-lipid material that forms a sheath like covering around some axons

50

Action potentials

Not graded all or nothing
-rapid change in the membrane potential

51

Receptor potentials

Graded

52

What is the most important job of the neuronal body?

Summation of EPSP and IPSP to determine whether or not to fire an action potential

53

Where are upper motor neurons found?

Cerebellum

54

axonal transport

enzymes required for neurotransmitter synthesis are produced in the cell body and transported to the axon terminals

55

Membrane potential

the potential difference across the cell membrane

56

Depolarization

-the membrane becomes more positive than the resting potential
-can be caused by sodium entering
-means the threshold is lowered for an action potential

57

Hyperpolarization

-if the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential
-the threshold is raised

58

Which is bigger a mono peptide or a neuropeptide?

Neuropeptide

59

Name 4 cranial nerves with parasympathetic outputs?

3,7,9,&10
Vagus holds 75% of all parasympathetic fibers

60

Trypotophin

an amino acid that is modified to make serotonin

61

What are classic neurotransmitters made from and where are they synthesized?

A single amino acid and are synthesized in the axon terminal

62

Neuropeptides are synthesized where?

perikaryal and dendrites;

63

What is the difference between classic neurotransmitters and neuropeptides

-classic are fast, onset, but quickly end
-neuropeptides don't act quickly but have a longer life

64

Which part of a neuron has the lowest threshold?

Axon hillock

65

What is neuromodulation?

Raises or lowers the threshold

66

GABA

-classic neurotransmitter
-IPSP
-Most prevalent inhibitory of neurotransmitters in the CNS
-interneurons

67

Glutamate

-classic neurotransmitter
-EPSP
-most important for excitation
-amino acid

68

What are two types of neuropeptides

enkephalins and endorphins

69

absolute refectory period

-first in the refractory period of an axon
-not responsive no action potentials

70

relative refractory period

-second in the refractory period of an axon
-re-establishes resting potential

71

Synaptic Potentials

-enable one neuron to affect the other
-EPSP/IPSP
-graded/non-regenerative

72

EPSP(Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential)

-opens the sodium ion channels, which depolarizes the membrane possibly triggering an action potential
-Glutamate

73

IPSP(Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential)

-Increases membrane permeability to potassium ions, which diffuse outward hyperpolarizing the membrane
-GABA

74

enkephalins

Generally inhibitory; reduce pain by inhibiting substance P release (CNS)

75

glutamate

Generally excitatory (CNS)

76

monoamine oxidase

-inactivates the monamine neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine after reuptake
-It is found in the mitochondria in the synaptic knob

77

serotonin

-Primarily inhibitory; leads to sleepiness; action is blocked by LSD, enhanced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant drug(CNS)

78

tryptophan

-Serotonin

79

Dopamin

Creates a sense of well-being; deficiency in some brain areas associated with Parkinson disease (CNS)

80

Endorphins

Any group of neuropeptides synthesized in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus that suppress pain

81

Two parts of the ANS(Autonomic Nervous System)

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic

82

Sympathetic division

thoracolumbar output(spinal nerves)
-fight or flight

83

Parasympathetic division

Craniosacral output(cranial nerves)
-"rest and digest"

84

Vagul response

This happens when the vagus shuts the body down which is why we pass out

85

Which division has postganglionic neurons closer to the target organs?

Parasympathetic

86

Meninges

-located between the bones and the soft tissues of the nervous system
-they have three layers the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and the pia mater

87

ascending and descending tracts of spinal cord

-ascending tracts of the spinal cord are afferent information dealing with sensory neurons
-descending tracts of the spinal cord deal with efferent information and motor neurons

88

Peripheral Nervous system

Consists of Cranial and spinal nerves

89

Sensory receptors

-the ends of neurons in the pos provide the sensory function of the nervous system
-they gather information by detecting changes inside and outside of the body

90

autonomic nervous system

communicates instructions from the cns that control viscera, and thus causes involuntary subconscious actions; heart and various glands

91

interneurons

-they lie within the brain or spinal cord
-relay information from one part of the brain or spinal cord to another

92

projecting neurons

-broadly defined, projection neurons are neurons whose axons extend from the neuronal cell body within the central nervous system to one or more distant regions of the CNS.

93

Olfactory bulbs

-extensions of the cerebral cortex just beneath the frontal lobes

94

Optic chiasm

X-shaped structure on the underside of the brain formed by optic nerve fibers that cross over

95

Hypothalamus

-Part of the brain located below the thalamus and forming the floor of the third ventricle
-ANS: controlling our emotional side

96

Pituitary gland

-Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that consists of anterior and posterior lobes; the hypophysis

97

midbrain

-small region of the brainstem between the diencephalon and the pons

98

pons

-Part of the brainstem above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain

99

cerebellum

-communicates with other parts of the CNS by tracts; integrates sensory information concerning the position of body parts; coordinates muscle activities and maintains posture
-Comparator

100

Medulla Oblongata

Part of the brainstem between the pons and the spinal cord

101

Tentorium cerebelli

-separates the occipital lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum
-it is a dural fold in the dural jacket

102

Somatic nervous system

-communicates voluntary instructions originating in the CNS to skeletal muscles, causing contractions

103

Which layer of the meninges is the most superficial?

Dura mater

104

The cerebellum is ____ to the brain stem?

Dorsal

105

Which occurs second int he refractory period of an axon?

relative refractory period

106

Descending tracts in the spinal cord are what?

Motor

107

T/F Hyperpolarization causes the membrane potential to become less negative?

False

108

T/F both unmyelinated and myelinated axons exhibit saltatory conduction

False

109

T/F The sympathetic division of ANS is known as "the fight or flight" response.

True

110

List one region/ part of the brains stem.

pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain

111

List one example of a neuropeptide

Endorphin, enkephalins, Substance P

112

What sensation is processed in the olfactory bulbs?

Smell

113

Which cranial nerves are only sensory?

1,2,8

114

What connects the hippocampus to the hypothalamus?

Fornix

115

What does hippocampus relate to?

memories

116

CN1 Olfactory Nerve

-only sensory
-receptors only found in nasal cavity
-goes into the olfactory bulbs then into the white matter tracts(olfactory tracts) that go into the cerebrum

117

Thalamus

-largest part of the diencephalon
-processes all sensations except for smell

118

Thalamic commisure

bridge that allows the two lobs to communicate and is only found in some people

119

Hypothalamus

-controls the ANS
-controls endocrine glands-makes a lot of hormones
-controls the pituitary gland
-center for desires= hunger, thirst, and sexual desires

120

Pineal gland

-melatonin is produced here
-biological clock - circadian rhythms

121

What is part of the diencephalon

thalamus, 3rd ventricle, hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, optic chiasm, optic nerves2

122

What is the function of the superior colliculi?

gaze- directs eyes, neck, head to look at interesting things in our environment

123

What is the function of the inferior colliculi?

Only deals with sound, CN8, goes to thalamus, processes auditory information

124

In the brain stem where is sensory information processed?

Dorsal

125

In the brain stem where is motor information processed?

Ventral

126

What are the superior colliculi and inferior colliculi apart of?

midbrain

127

What connects the 3rd ventricle to the 4th?

Cerebral Aqueduct

128

Sternocleidomastoid

spinal accessory 11 and cervical spinal nerves 2-3. The origin and insertion can be flipped

129

Trapezius

-spinal accessory 11
-very superficial
-lies on top of rhomboid major

130

How many pairs of cervical spinal nerves are there?

8

131

What is the most superficial muscle in the body?

platysma

132

Which two muscles can flip flop origin and insertion?

pectoralis minor and sternocleidomastoid

133

What is going to establish the resting membrane potential?

Sodium and Potassium pump

134

What is the most prevalent ion in a cell?

Potassium

135

What is the most prevalent ion outside of a cell?

Sodium

136

What ion causes depolarization?

Sodium

137

Whats the most important ion for neuronal communication?

Sodium

138

EPSP+IPSP=?

Summation, which determines whether to fire an action potential

139

What are the three major groups of neurons based off of structural differences?

Multipolar, Bipolar, & Unipolar Neuron

140

Where can Multipolar neurons usually be found?

outside the brain and spinal cord

141

Where can Bipolar neurons usually be found?

specialized parts of the eye, nose, and ears

142

Where can Unipolar neurons usually be found?

ganglia

143

What are the three classifications of neurons based off of their functional differences

Sensory neuron, interneuron, and motor neuron

144

Sensory neurons are usually classified as what structure of neuron?

unipolar

145

What is the structure of an interneuron classified as?

multipolar

146

What structure is a motor neuron classified as?

multipolar

147

What are the four types of CNS neuroglia?

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microlgia, ependyma

148

What are the two types of neuroglia of the PNS?

Schwann cells and satellite cells