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Who proposed the idea of Loci of control?

Rotter (1966) proposed the idea of Locus of Control.

He said it was like a continuum - everyone fit along the scale somewhere.


What are the characteristics of someone with an internal locus of control?

- Someone with an internal locus of control will believe their own fate is determined by their own actions.
- They are more likely to resist social influence
- Resist coercion from others (Hutchins and Estey).
- They are also more likely to become leaders and high achievers - Spector (1982).
- Oliner and Oliner - greater understanding of social responsibility.


Someone with an External Locus of control is more likely to...

...Blame events happening in their life on the actions of other people. They are also more likely to give in to social influence.


True or false? People with a high internal locus of control are more likley to be more achievement-oriented than those with high external locus of control?



What are the 3 necessary traits in order for a minority to influence a majority?

Consistency, Committment and Flexibility.


What did Moscovici et al (1969) find from his test on minority influence?

A consistent minority managed to make the naive participants say green on over 8% of the trials.
In the second condition, participants were influenced to judge the discs as green more so than in the inconsistent condition.


What did Miscovici et al conclude about minority influence?

He found that a consistent minority is far more influencial than an inconsitent minority.


What did Asch (1956) find about the effects of social support on a person's ability to resist conformity?

With the introduction of an ally, the conformity levels dropped sharply. From 37% to 5.5%. He concluded that the presence of an ally breaks the unanimous position of the majority allowing for greater confidence amongst the minority.


Evaluate Loci of control.

- Supporting evidence - Spector - internal LOCs were more goal-oriented and persuasive.

- Supporting evidence - Hutchins and Estey - High internal LOC = resistance to coercion from others.

- Twenge et al - External LOC has become more common in American youths - Rotter's proposal lacks temporal validity.


Evaluate the Theory of Social Support.

1). Supporting evidence - Allan and Levine - if the first response is correct, the pp will commit to that answer.
- Also, valid and invalid social support. Pps were more likely to believe an able-visioned person than a blind person.
- Concluded, an ally is important but more so if they provide valid social support.

2). Oliner and Oliner - people who rescued Jews from concentration camps had high internal LOC.
- High internal LOC - high social responsibility.


What is valid social support?

Social support that is more likely to be influencial. E.g. An able visioned person in a vision test is more valid than a blind person.


Who proposed valid and invalid social support?

Allen and Levine.