Flashcards in OCD Deck (18)
What are compultions?
Repetitive rituals of physical activity or thought processes that perpetuate over time.
Give examples of compultions.
Give a cognative, behavioural and emotional characteristic of OCD.
Cognative - Uncontrollable thoughts, images, impulses, fears, doubts.
Behavioural - compulsive behaviours.
Emotional - Concearn and upset caused by the realisation that the behaviours are irrational.
Low levels of COMT activity lead to what levels of dopamine?
Low levels of COMT activity lead to high levels of dopamine.
Who proposed the relationship between dopamine and the COMT gene?
Tukel et al.
What do high dopamine levels create?
High levels of dopamine manifest into compultions.
Mutations of the SERT gene lead to what levels of seratonin?
Low levels of seratonin.
What did Ozaki et al find out about OCD and family relations.
Two unrelated families with mutations of the SERT gene of which, 6 out of 7 fmaily members had OCD.
What is the Neural explaination for OCD?
If the caudate nucleus is damaged, the worry is not suppressed and the thalamus is alerted. Creating a 'worry circuit'.
What did Sukel find about the caudate nucleus and neurotransmitters?
Dopamine was implicated in the malfunction of the caudate nucleus. Leading to high dopamine levels.
What is the diathesis stress model?
States that certain genes leaves some people more likely to develop a mental disorder.
What does SSRI stand for?
Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitors.
What do SSRIs do?
The block the seratonin receptor sites which increases the amount of seratonin in the synapse.
Tricyclics have the same function as SSRIs. True or False?
True. They are basically the same thing.
Give some advantages of the biological explaination for OCD.
- Supporting evidence - Nestadt et al - 68% of identical twins shared OCD compared to 31% of non-twins.
- Supporting evidence - Marini and Stebnicki - someone with a family member with OCD is 4 time more likely to develop it.
Give some disadvantages of the biological explaination for OCD.
- Marini and Stebnicki's study is correlational. Thus, dosen't show cause.
- Deterministic - suggests that genetic, neurochemical and neuroanatomical influences are biologically predisposed - leading to a passive attitude to those who suffer - inhibit recovery.
- Limited explainstion - ignores possible explainations such as, environment, childhood and everyday stressors.
Give advantages of the biological explaination for treatments for OCD.
- Meta analysis from Soomro et al - 3097 patients - SSRIs are 'moderately effective'.
- Drug therapy is mush cheaper - good for NHS and good for taxpayer.
- Drugs require less commitment.