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AQA A-Level Psychology Paper 1 > Stages of Attatchment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stages of Attatchment Deck (14)
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1

What is the asocial stage?

Infants show a greater preferance for social stimuli. Reciprocity and interactional synchrony are prominent.

2

What is the indiscriminate stage?

Infants descriminate between familiar and unfamiliar people. They do not display stranger anxiety.

3

What is the discriminate stage?

Infants develop a primary attatchement to one person. They display separation anxiety, stranger anxiety and joy on reunion.

4

What is the multiple attatchment stage?

Form secondary attatchments, infants display separartion anxiety in these attatchments.

5

When does the asocial stage take place?

Birth to 3 months.

6

When does the indiscriminate attatchment stage take place?

3 to 6 months.

7

When does the discriminate attatchment take place?

7 months onwards.

8

From what age does the multiple attatchment stage prevail?

10 months onwards.

9

Who researched the stages of attatchment?

Schaffer and Emerson.

10

What was their sample?

60 Glaswegian infants from working class backgrounds.

11

Describe the procedure.

- Mother reported infant's responses to separation in seven everday situations.
- They also assesssed the levels of stranger anxiety displayed by the infants.

12

What did Schaffer and Emerson find?

- First attatchment was formed between 6 and 8 months.
- By 18 months, 65% of infants had developed a primary attatchment to the mother and only 3% to the father.
- By 18 months, 31% had formed multiple attatchments.

13

Give an advantage of their study.

Advantages:
- Mundane realism - infants' own homes - normal situations.
- Little to no Hawthorne Effect - infants are covertly observed by their mothers - findings will be accurate.

14

Give a disadvantage of Schaffer and Emerson's study.

Disadvantages:
- Lack of temporal validity - taking place in the 1960s - child rearing practices have changed considerably - zeitgeist.
- Ethnocentric sample - sample from the same location and social grade.
- Bowbly contradicted the findings arguing that children show separation anxiety when a playmate leaves yet no primary attatchment is formed.
- Self - report technique - mothers are less sensitive to infant's protests and less likely to report them.
- Thomas suggested that a tendancy to form primary attatchment to one person is bad for psychological development - may be more desirable to have a variety of attatchments.