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AQA A-Level Psychology Paper 1 > Stages of Attatchment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stages of Attatchment Deck (14)
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What is the asocial stage?

Infants show a greater preferance for social stimuli. Reciprocity and interactional synchrony are prominent.


What is the indiscriminate stage?

Infants descriminate between familiar and unfamiliar people. They do not display stranger anxiety.


What is the discriminate stage?

Infants develop a primary attatchement to one person. They display separation anxiety, stranger anxiety and joy on reunion.


What is the multiple attatchment stage?

Form secondary attatchments, infants display separartion anxiety in these attatchments.


When does the asocial stage take place?

Birth to 3 months.


When does the indiscriminate attatchment stage take place?

3 to 6 months.


When does the discriminate attatchment take place?

7 months onwards.


From what age does the multiple attatchment stage prevail?

10 months onwards.


Who researched the stages of attatchment?

Schaffer and Emerson.


What was their sample?

60 Glaswegian infants from working class backgrounds.


Describe the procedure.

- Mother reported infant's responses to separation in seven everday situations.
- They also assesssed the levels of stranger anxiety displayed by the infants.


What did Schaffer and Emerson find?

- First attatchment was formed between 6 and 8 months.
- By 18 months, 65% of infants had developed a primary attatchment to the mother and only 3% to the father.
- By 18 months, 31% had formed multiple attatchments.


Give an advantage of their study.

- Mundane realism - infants' own homes - normal situations.
- Little to no Hawthorne Effect - infants are covertly observed by their mothers - findings will be accurate.


Give a disadvantage of Schaffer and Emerson's study.

- Lack of temporal validity - taking place in the 1960s - child rearing practices have changed considerably - zeitgeist.
- Ethnocentric sample - sample from the same location and social grade.
- Bowbly contradicted the findings arguing that children show separation anxiety when a playmate leaves yet no primary attatchment is formed.
- Self - report technique - mothers are less sensitive to infant's protests and less likely to report them.
- Thomas suggested that a tendancy to form primary attatchment to one person is bad for psychological development - may be more desirable to have a variety of attatchments.