The Monotropic and Learning Theories of Attatchment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Monotropic and Learning Theories of Attatchment Deck (14)
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List the 5 principles of Bowlby's Monotropic theory.

1). Attatchement is adaptive
2). Social releasers to elicit a response
3). Critical Period
4). Monotropism
5). Internal Working Model


How long is the critical period?

The first two years of life.


When does the sensitive period end?

At around 5 years.


What was the reason for attatchment's adaptive nature?

To aid survival, as infants would retain proximity to safety figures.


What is monotropy?

An innate tendancy to form an attatchment to one primary caregiver. Most commonly the mother (Schaffer).


What is the law of continuity as part of the internal working model?

The process by which attatchments formed in the critical period act as a template for future relationships.


Give a strength of Bowlby's monotropic theory of attatchment.

- Animal studies have supported monotrophism - Lorenz and Harlow - imprinting aided survival and natural selection.
- Supporting evidence for the internal working model - Hazan and Shavers - secure attatchments formed happy and stable future relationships.
- Simpson et al - Secure attatchments types were more emotionally attatched to their partners in later life.


Give a weakness of Bowlby's monotropic theory of attatchment.

- Socially sensitive topic - Burman identified that the theory places a burden of responsibility on mothers and can have economic implications - lack of temporal validity.
- Bowlby underestmated the role of the father - father's role is solely economic - theory is a zeitgeist.
- Rutter suggested that all attatchment types are equally important - Thomas suggested that a primary caregiver attatchment was not good for psychological development.


What two behaviourist processes are included in the learning theory of attatchment?

Classical and operant conditioning.


How is an attatchment learned through classical conditioning?

Food (UCS) = Pleasure (UCR)
Mother (CS) + Food (UCS) = Pleasure (UCR)
Mother (CS) = Pleasure (CR)


How is an attatchment maintained through operant conditioning?

Food is the primary reinforcer, the peron who distributes the food becomes the secondary reinforcer.


Who explained operant conditioning in relation to maintaining attatchments?

Dollard and Miller


Give a strength of the learning theory.

- Empirically supported theory.


Give a weakness of the learning theory.

- Contesting evidence - Harlow - Comfort is more important than nourishment.
- Reductionist - leaving many questions unanswered - Harlow's monkeys still developed an attatchment even when no reward was given (They were blasted with cold air by the 'mothers') - attachment is innate?
- Contesting evidence - Hay and Vespo - attatchment is learnt indirectly - parents teach infants how to form attachments.
- No mention of the quality of the attachment - Hodges and Tizard - quality attachments are best for good future psychological health.