Flashcards in Maternal Deprivation and Institutionalisation Deck (16)
Define 'affectionless psychopathy'.
Where people lack feelings of remorse or guilt from their acts or omissions.
What is the sample of Bowlby's 44 thieves study?
88, (44 non-criminals (control) and 44 criminals)).
What percentage of the affectionless psychopaths experienced prolonged maternal separation?
What did Bowlby conclude?
Prolonged maternal deprivation causes affectionless psychopathy.
Give a strength of Bowlby's 44 thieves study.
- Real world applications - Robertson concluded that maternal substitution could prevent the harmful effects of maternal deprivation - dedicated carers for each infant - practical validity.
Give a limitation to Bowlby's 44 thieves study.
- Contradictory evidence - Lewis repeated Bowlby's study with a larger sample - maternal separation does not predict criminality.
- No consideration of dispositional factors - Bowlby suggested that children who coped better formed a more secure attatchment and thus were more resiliant to separation.
- Rutter suggested the symptoms Bowlby identified were more akin of privation.
- Bowlby suggested that the affects were irreversable - Hodges and Tizard - With good quality, continuous care, the affects of affectionless psychopathy can be reversed.
Living outside the family/family home in an institution setting (i.e orphanage, hospital, asylum).
Describe the procedure of Rutter's Romanian Orphanage study.
- longitudinal study
- following 165 infants as they are adopted in Britain.
- Assessed at 4, 6, 11 and 15 years old.
- Info was gathered at interview by parents and teachers.
What was the average IQ of participants adopted before 6 months, at the age of 11?
What was the IQ of participanats adopted after two years, at the age of 11?
What is a disinhibited attatchment?
An adaptation to living with multiple caregivers and thus not forming an attatchment to one, specific caregiver.
Symptoms of a disinhibited attachment include...
Naivety, a tendency to go off with strangers and attention seeking.
Can the affects of disinhibited attatchment be overcome?
Yes, with good quality care. Removal from an institution before 6 months also benefits.
What did La Mare and Audet propose?
Developmental dwarfism. Orphans at age 4.5 were physically smaller than normal counterparts. However, by age 10.5, they had caught up.
Give an advanatge of Rutter and/or La Mare's study.
- Longitudinal study - shows trends over time - snapshot studies would suggest that the effects are irreversable.
- High practical validity - led to changes to institutions - e.g. increasing the number of caregivers per infant to mitigate the effects of disinhibited attatchment.
- Random allocation of participants - ethically sound - preventing protection from harm/mental trauma.