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Flashcards in M3 Koch's Postulates Deck (76):
1

what are the different 'ages' moved through time

age of disaster
age of disease
now = ape of decay

2

what does age of decay mean

treating disease efficiently but body wearing out
cancer, ageing and obesity

3

what dd koch hypothesise and when

germ theory of disease 1880's

4

what is koch postulates about

microorganisms is present in every case of disease but absent in health

5

how can koch's postulates be confirmed

suspected organisms isolated and grown in pure culture then inoculate healthy see if become diseased

6

what should be seen form the pt's innoculum of infectious agent

Ab in pt's serum

7

what are the major groups of infectious agents

protozoa
fungi
bacteria
viruses

8

what are protozoa

single celled animals
eukaryote
e.g. malaria

9

what are fungi

higher plant like organism
eukaryotes
e.g. candida albicans - thrush

10

what are bacteria

generally small, single celled
prokaryotes

11

what are viruses

very small obligate parasites
non living
resp and blod bourne

12

the human body is know as a what

eosytem
micro- biome

13

how many mammalian cells in human bod

10^13

14

how many microorganisms in human bod

10^14

15

what are the two types of micro organisms assc with body

endogenous - majority
exogenous - not normla flora

16

what is a free living bacteria

saprophytic
feed on dead org mat
one genus sp

17

what is commensal bacteria

organisms gains advantage but host doesn't gain from ass

18

what is a mutualistic bacteria

or symbiotic
relationship
host and org mutual benefit

19

what is a parasitic bacteria

live on or in living creature causing harm/damage to host

20

can organisms change lifestyle

yes
can e.g. free liv - parasite

21

what is the mutualism and parasitism described as

dynamic relationship
large num bacteria in body the ability to shift and adapt

22

what is mutualistic symbiotic relationship

organism can prod nutrients or vitamins
can degrade harmful chemicals
colonisation resistance

23

hat si colonisation resistance

can exclude access/colonisation by pathogen

24

what are some sites where there is common 'microflora'

body surfaces - epi
oral cavity
resp tract
GI tract
urinary tract

25

is there microflora in stomach

not usually
s cocci and lactobacilli
h pylori
stomach cancer

26

does the colon have microflora

has a lot micro orgs
complex micro flora
obligately anaerobic sp

27

is the duodenum densely populated

more complex
prelim s.cocci, lactobacilli, bactericides

28

what si the ileum population like

more densely populated than jejunum
complex microflora

29

what is usually sterile

bronchi alveoli trachea

30

where can oral microbial flora found

mucosa lips, cheek and palate
tongue
tooth surfaces- approximate and sbginigval
saliva
tonsils area
dentures

31

what bac is found in gingiva

s. cocci
actinomyces

32

what bac is found in palate

s.cocci
actinomyces

33

what bac is found on tooth surface

s.cocci
actinomyces
fusobacterium

34

what bac is found on tongue

s.cocci

35

what bac is found in cheek

s.cocci
actinomyces

36

what bac is found on gingival crevice

v.complex
s.cocci
actinomyces
gram -ve anaerobic cocci and rods
gram +ve anaerobic cocci nd rods

37

how is sampling done of microflora

difficult to do
stimulated/non stim saliva
mucosal surfaces
plaque

38

where is s mutant found

saliva & approximal plaque

39

where is s sanguinias found

tongue, saliva, approximate nd sub gingival

40

where is s oralis found

tongue, saliva, approximal, sub gingival

41

where is s salvarius found

tongue
saliva
approximal
sub gingival

42

where is actinomyces found

saliva
approxiaml
subgigival

43

where is lactobacillus found

saliva
approximal

44

where fusobacterium found

tongue
saliva
approximal
subigiinigval

45

where ar spirochetes found

sub gingival

46

where are candida found

tongue
saliva

47

what are some key points

normal flora varies
imp prevent disease
microflora potential pathogens
change in state

48

what is a pahogen

microbe capable of causing host damage
includes classical pathogens and opportunistic pathogens and damage prod direct or via host immune response

49

what is virulence

measure capacity of pathogen to cause disease
microbe cause damage to host

50

what is a virulence factor

making more or less capable of disease
component pathogen damages host not needed for survival

51

what is an adhesin

enables binding of organism to host tissue

52

what is an invasin cell

enables organism to avoid host defence mechanisms

53

what is aggressin

causes damage to host directly

54

what is modulin

induces damage to host directly

55

what is the molecular level of koch postulates

virulence trait strongly assc with pathogenic strain
inactivation dec pathogenicity
gene expressed at some point

56

what are produced to protect host

antibodies directed ag geen product to protect host

57

what are limitations of koch postulates

organism cannot be cultured/isolated - obligate intracellular organism
organism is a human pathogen

58

what is a obligate pathogen

must cause disease for transmission
human disease

59

what is an opportunistic pathogen

do not have to cause disease for transmission
animal pathogen

60

what is an 'accidental' pathogen

disease hinders or prevents transmission
notmal flora --> disease

61

what are some examples of obligate pathogen

TB
csyphilus

62

what are examples of opportunistic pathogens

vibrio cholera

63

what are some examples of accidental pathogens

meningitis

64

what is epidemiology

study of occurnace, spread and control of disease

65

what do u consider for any organism in epidemiology

infection dose
virulence of organism
host status (resistance)

66

what is sporadic

not consistent
small peaks

67

what is endemic

present whole time at low level

68

what is epidemic

sudden spike to high level location of significant land area

69

what is pandemic

travels the whole world
2 or more continents

70

whats prevalence

proportion of pop affected

71

what is retrospective

clinical effect studied

72

what is prospective

pop expo to presumed cause studied

73

what is microflora

endogenous pop of microbes

74

simply what is koch postulates

basis for demo cause of disease

75

what is pahogeniciyt

capacity to cause disease/damge

76

what is virulence

relative ability to cause disease