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Flashcards in M5 Routes of Transmission Deck (66):
1

what is he basic idea of pathogenesis

way pathogen release spread and contact a host

2

what are he steps of pathogenesis

adhere/colonise and invade
evade host defences
multiply/divide its life cycle
exit host

3

what are the two main routes of transmission

direct and indirect

4

what is direct contact

actual contact with pathogen some transmission

5

what is direct contcat

common vehicle
infected water, touched surface, needle

6

what are the ways a droplet can infect

cough
sneeze
talking
procedure

7

what is the size of airborne particles

5 micrometres or small particles

8

how can some bac be airborne from mouth

high speed drill use in aq enviro

9

what are some examples of a common vehicle

food
water
medications
equipment

10

what is an example of vector borne disease

malaria from mosquitos

11

what are the 5 I's of spreading an infection

Inhalation
Ingestion
Inoculation
mother to Infant
INtercourse

12

why is it important to know the 5 I's of trnsmission

if known can interrupt transmission
principles apply in healthcare and community settings

13

what is the inhalation to attain an infection

resp trcat
direct contact - pt to dentists

14

how is direct inhalation taken out

saliva sneezing drill aerosol

15

what is the indirect airborne spread of inhalation

droplets contaminate material first host makes contact with material droplets evaporate to form droplet nuclei

16

what is an example of indirect arbour inhalation

influenza
m TB
chicken pox
measles

17

what is the travelling of a droplet known as

environmental disperiosnn

18

what si the etiquette of cough/sneeze

cover nose/mouth w/tissues
dispose in waste bin
wash hands with soap
keep contaminated hands away from mucous mems

19

what precautions are then to protect from droplets

gloves
masks
arpon
eye protection
vaccination

20

what can happen to skin and mucous mems when in direct contact with infectious agent

skin to skin = impetigo, warts, ringworm

21

what can happen to having intercourse with indiv with infectious agent

STD or venereal
disease
gonorrhoeae

22

what can haooent o skin nd mucous memes with indirect contact of ingestion/inocluation or intercourse

breach barrier - cuts, burns, tooth extractions
tissue accessible to infectious material
- commensal s. aureus

23

what si the skin microbiota like on the hand

skin aerobic bac
fingertips 0-3000 colonies

24

what si procedure fro clothing etc in clinical areas assc with hands

bare below elbow
no neck tie
short sleeve
no wrist watch

25

what are some ways of inoculation of infectious agents

animal vectors
needlestick accident
contaminated needles

26

what are some diseases that use an animal vector

y. pestis
rabies
malaria

27

what are some needlestick accidents

hep B and C
HIV

28

is hep or HIV more effective at trans

HEP B AND C

29

how can contaminated needles spread disease

drug addicts
poor hygiene
needle reuse

30

what si the most likely means of transmission to healthcare workers

inoculation of infected blood by sharps
blood splashing onto broken skin or mucous mem

31

what si more effective direct contact or splashing

direct contact 10X more effective

32

how are sharps disposed of

have designated bins waste stream orange clinical waste

33

what is mother to infant transmission

vertical transmission

34

how does vertical transmission occur

transplacental
birth blood and contact

35

what possibilities can occur from mother to infant transmission

viruses - HIV, Herpes
STD's - gonorrhoea, Syphilis
S.cocci
fusobacteria - still birth

36

what is important to know from vertical transmission

that cannot judge child ro infant as disease free as vertical transmission can occur may be HIV positive for examples

37

what can affect the alimentary canal via ingestion

water
food and milk
contact infection

38

how can ingestion transmission affect through water

contaminated water, sewage drink

39

how can food and milk affect ingestion transmission

contaminated at source - myco TB
contaminated thro storage

40

how doe contact infection cause ingestion transmisson

poor hygiene
contaminated hands/utensils

41

again what are most routes of entry

inhalation
skina nd mucous mems
injection
vertical transmission
ingestion
urinary tract

42

how is the urinary tract a possible route of entry

transfer to intestinal bac
cystitis, kidney infections

43

what are some common precautions taken when infected infdividua

isolation/eradication
prevention transmission
protect susceptible individuals

44

what is the isolation/eradication that can occur

quarantine
destroy
vaccinate

45

how can prevention of trnamsiion occur

avoid direct contact - gloves, condoms, filter air
treatment -sterlise, disinfect, wet dating

46

what is wet dating

just wet cloth

47

what is a means of protecting susceptible individuals

vaccination, prohpylatct antibiotics used
socio - economic conditions, diet, etc

48

how many pt acquire infection during hospital stay

6.4%

49

what are some reason for drops in HAI

hand washing
protective gear
regular cleaning
isolating pt's
appropriate use of antibiotics

50

what are hAI's

healthcare assc infections

51

what si the rate of HAU in UK

9%

52

what are some factors influence disease transmission

agent
environment
host

53

what are some facts about the agent

infectivity
pathogenicity
virulence
antigenic stability
survival and resistance

54

what are some facts about the environment

weather
housing
geography
occupational setting
air quality
food

55

what are some factors to do with the host

age
sex
genetics
behaviour
nutritional status
health status

56

what are some antibacterial defences

physical systems
chemical denfeces
barriers
cellular replcement
normal microflora
antimicrobial peptides
acute phase response
acquired immunity

57

what is classic complement function

Ab recognises Ags

58

what is the classical pathway of complement

C1 complex binds Fc potions Ab
C1 complex activated
cleaves C4 and C2
C4bC2a complex formed cleaves C3
C3b allows products to bind that kill bacteria and marks cells for phgocytosiss

59

what is MAC

membrane attack complex

60

what does MAC activavt

C3b which cleaves C5

61

what is important bout skin environment

periodic drying
moist areas
acidic pH
high salt
inhibitory substances

62

what are some inhibitory substances

lysosyme
cathelicidins
oleic acid

63

what bacteria are commonly isolated form moist areas

staphylococcus and corynebacterium

64

what is an example of coagulate -ve

staphylococcus spp

65

what are some major pathogens of skin microbiota

s. aureus
s,cocci
bacillus
candida
sometimes mycobacterium

66

what is the concept of transient flora

occur when skin is not washed/ tired efficiently such as s.aureus