Flashcards in Marine Energy Deck (35)
When 1 gram of ice is at a temperature of 0 degrees Centigrade how many calories must be added for the water to melt?
What is the latent heat of Vaporization?
The amount of energy needed to break the intermolecular bonds and change the state from liquid to gas
When one gram of liquid water is at a temperature of 100 degrees Centigrade how many calories are required to vaporize the water?
The conversion of a liquid to a gas below its boiling point is called what?
The latent heat of evaporation at 20 Degrees Centigrade is what?
Define Heat Capacity
The amount of heat required to raise the the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Centigrade
The angle between the Hydrogen atoms in a water molecule has a measure of how many degrees?
Water Density is affected by
Temperature, Salinity, and Pressure
Define Thermal Contraction
The idea that the density of most substances increases as its temperature decreases
Thermal Contraction in pure water exist only to a certain temperature what is this temperature?
4 Degrees Centigrade
Ice is less dense than water because
Ice crystals take up more volume than liquid water which causes the volume to expand and density to decrease
What is the latent heat of melting?
The energy needed to break the intermolecular bonds that hold water molecules rigidly in place.
The total amount solid material dissolved in water
Seawater is about how many times saltier than fresh water?
220 Times Saltier
What is the Principle of Constant Proportions?
All the major dissolved constituents occur nearly everywhere in the ocean in the exact same proportions
What is the residence time of Sodium in seawater?
260 Million Years
What is the residence time of Potassium in Seawater?
11 Million Years
The residence time of Calcium is how many years?
8 Million Years
The residence time of Silicon is
The residence time of Manganese is
The Residence time of Iron is
The residence time of Aluminum is
Ions that attach to surfaces of sinking clay and biologic particles do so through a process called what?
What percent of all water on earth exists in the world ocean?
What percent of the worlds water is frozen in glaciers and ice caps?
What percent of Earths water exists in groundwater and soil moisture?
What percent of Earths water exists in streams and lakes?
What percent of water on Earth resides in the atmosphere as water vapor?
The Halocline, Pycnocline, and Thermocline all typically occur in what range of depth?
300 to 1000 Meters
What are terminator devices?
Energy harnessing devices oriented perpendicular to the wave, offshore or nearshore, and harness 500 kW to 2 MW.
What are attenuators?
Harnessing devices parallel to the waves, rides it like a ship.
What is a point absorber?
A floating structure that harnesses wave energy by bobbing components in the center.
What is an overtopping device?
A small pileup of waves is created in a reservoir which then fall back down and creates energy.
What is the name for the first tidal barrage used to generate energy, and where is it located?
Rance Tidal Power Station; Rance River, France