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Flashcards in Thurman Glossary Deck (180):
1

Abiotic

Pertaining to nonliving factors, not life.

2

Nadir

Point on celestial sphere directly opposite the zenith and directly beneath the observer.

3

Nannplanktoon

Plankton less than 50 microns (0.002 inch) in length that can't be captured in plankton net and must be removed from water by centrifuge or special microfilters.

4

Nansen bottle

Device use by oceanographers to obtain samples of ocean water from beneath the surface.

5

National Flood Insurance Program (NFLP)

prevents costly federal aid after a natural disasters by discouraging building in risk-prone areas.

6

Natural selection

only organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genes

7

Nauplius

Microscopic free-swimming larva stage of crustaceans. Have three pairs of appendages.

8

Abiotic environment

The nonliving components of an ecosystem

9

Abyssal clay

Deep-ocean deposits containing less than 30% biogenous sediment. Often oxidized and red in color, thus commonly termed red clay.

10

Abyssal hill

A volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) above the ocean floor.

11

Abyssal hill province

A deep-ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where oceanic sedimentation rates are so low that abyssal plains do not form and the ocean floor is covered with abyssal hills.

12

Abyssal plain

A flat depositional surface extending seaward from the continental rise or oceanic trenches.

13

Abyssal storm

Storm like occurrences of rapid current movement affecting the deep-ocean floor. They are believed to be caused by warm and cold core eddies of surface currents.

14

Abyssal zone

The benthic environment between 4,000 and 6,000 meters (13,000 and 20,000 feet).

15

Abyssopelagic

The open-ocean environment below 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) in depth.

16

Acid

A substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution.

17

Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)

The measurement of ocean wide changes in water properties such as temperature by transmitting and receiving low-frequency sound signals.

18

Active margin

A continenal margin maked by a high degree of tectonic activity, such as those typical of the Pacific Rim. Types of active margins include convergent active margins and transform active margins.

19

Neap tide

A tide just after the first or third quarters of the moon phase (occurred every two weeks)

20

Nearshore

Zone of a beach that extends from low tide shoreline seaward to where breakers begin forming.

21

Nebula

Diffuse mass of interstellar dust and/or gas.

22

Nebular Hypothesis

Model that describe formation of solar system by contraction of a nebula.

23

Negative feedback loop

The feedback is negative if the loop gain AB is negative.

24

Nektobenthos

Members of bethos that can actively swim and spend much time off the bottom.

25

Nekton

active swimmers that can determine their position in the ocean by swimming.

26

Calcareous

Containing Calcium Carbonate

27

Calcite

A mineral with the chemical formula CaCO₃

28

Calcite Compensation Depth

The depth at which the amount of calcium produced is equal to the amount of calcium dissolving in the water.

29

Calcium Carbonate

A chalk like substance secreted by organisms in the form of coverings or skeletal structures

30

California Current

The cold eastern boundary current of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

31

Calorie

A unit of heat defined as the energy required to to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree

32

Fact (scientific)

An occurrence which has been repeatedly confirmed

33

Faculae

A bright spot on the Sun that is associated with magnetic storms

34

Fahrenheit temperature scale

A temperature scale whereby the freezing point of water is 32° and the boiling point of water is 212°

35

Falcate

Curved and tapering to a point; sickle-shaped

36

Falkland Current

A northward-flowing cold surface current that occurs off the southeastern coast of South America

37

Fall bloom

A middle-latitude bloom of phytoplankton that occurs during the fall and is limited by the availability of sunlight

38

Fall equinox

The passage of the Sun across the equator as it moves from the Northern Hemisphere into the Southern Hemisphere, approximately September 23

39

Ultraplankton

Plankton with the greatest dimension of 5 microns (.0002 in.) they are very difficult to separate from water.

40

Ultrasonic

Sound waves that can be heard by humans (above 20,000 cycles per second)

41

Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation

Shorter than visible radiation but longer than X-rays. .001 - .4 micron

42

United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

A series of meetings to establish legal rights in the sea, particularly in regards to seafloor mining.

43

Upper Water

Near the ocean surface. Includes the mixed layer and the permanent thermocline. Top 1000 meters.

44

Upwelling

Deep, cold, nutrient-laden water is brought to the surface. usually by diverging equatorial currents or coastal currents that pull surface waters away from the coasts.

45

Valence

Combining capacity of an element measured by the number of hydrogen atoms with which it will combine.

46

Van der Waals force

A weak attractive force between molecules resulting from the interaction of one molecule and the electrons of another.

47

Vapor

The gaseous state of a substance that is liquid or solid under normal conditions.

48

Vent

An opening on the ocean floor that emits hot water and dissolved minerals; vent type is based on water temperature and includes hydrothermal (hot water) vents and warm-water vents.

49

Ventral

pertaining to the lower surface.

50

Vernal Equinox (spring equinox)

The passage of the sun across the equator as it moves from the southern hemisphere into the northern hemisphere, approximately March 21st. During which everywhere in the world experience equal amounts of sunlight.

51

Vertebrata

The subphylum of chordates that includes those animals with a well-developed brain and a skeleton of bone or cartilage.

52

vertically mixed estuary

very shallow estuaries such as lagoons in which freshwater a marine water are totally mixed from top to bottom so that the salinity at the surface and the bottom is the same as most places within the estuary.

53

Virioplankton

Viruses that live as plankton

54

Viscosity

Property of a substance to offer resistance to flow caused by internal friction.

55

Volcanic arc

An arc-shaped row of active volcanoes directly a subduction zone. Can occur as a row os island (island arc) or mountains on land (continental arc)

56

Walker Circulation Cell

a Pattern of atmospheric circulation that involves the rising of warm air over the East Indies low-pressure cell and it's decent over the high-pressure cell in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile. It's weakening accompanies an El Nino event which led to the term El Nino-Southern Oscillation event.

57

Nematath

A linear chain of islands and/or seamounts that are progressively older in one direction. It is created by the passage of a lithospheric plate over a hotspot.

58

Nematocyst

The stinging mechanism found within the cnidoblast of members of the phylum Cnidaria.

59

Neritic Province

That portion of the pelagic environment from the shoreline to where the depth reaches 200 meters (660 feet).

60

Neritic Sediment

Sediment composed primarily of lithogenous particles and deposited relatively rapidly on the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise; also called neritic deposits.

61

Net primary production

The primary production of producers after they have removed what is needed for their metabolism.

62

Neutral

A state in which there is no excess of either the hydrogen or the hydroxide ion.

63

Neutron

An electrically neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of atoms that has a mass approximately equivalent to that of a proton.

64

New moon

The phase of the moon that occurs when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction; that is, they are both on the same side of Earth. During this time, the dark, unlit side of the Moon faces Earth.

65

New production

Primary production supported by nutrients supplied from outside the immediate ecosystem by upwelling or other physical transport.

66

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

An equation that quantifies gravitational force between two bodies; it states that the gravitational force is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the two bodies and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two masses.

67

Niche

The ecological role of an organism and its position in the ecosystem.

68

Niigata, Japan

The site of mercury poisoning of humans in the 1960s by ingestion of contaminated seafood. Minamata disease.

69

Nitrogen narcosis

A sickness that affects divers. It results from too much nitrogen gas being dissolved in the blood and reducing the flow of oxygen to tissues. The threat of this problem increases with increasing pressure (depth).

70

Node

The point on a standing wave where vertical motion is lacking or minimal. If this condition extends across the surface of an oscillating body of water, the line of no vertical motion is a nodal line.

71

Non-native species

Species that are introduced into waters in which they are alien and often cause severe problems by displacing native species. Also called exotic, alien, or invasive species.

72

Non-point source pollution

Any type of pollution entering the ocean from multiple sources rather than from a single discrete source, point, or location. Examples include urban runoff, trash, pet waste, lawn fertilizer, and other types of pollution generated by a multitude of sources. Also called poison runoff.

73

North Atlantic Current

The northernmost surface current of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre.

74

North Atlantic Deep Water

A deep-water mass that forms primarily at the surface of the Norwegian Sea and moves south along the floor of the North Atlantic Ocean.

75

North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

The large, clockwise-flowing subtropical gyre that exists in the North Atlantic Ocean.

76

North-East Pacific Time-series Undersea Networked Experiments (NEPTUNE)

A cutting-edge sea floor observatory system designed to monitor tectonic activity along the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

77

North Pacific Current

The northernmost surface current of the North Pacific Subtropical Subtropical Gyre.

78

North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

The large, clockwise-flowing subtropical gyre that exists in the North Pacific Ocean.

79

Northern boundary current

The norther boundary surface current of Northern Hemisphere subtropical gyres.

80

Northeast Monsoon

A northeast wind that blows off the Asian mainland onto the Indian Ocean during the winter season.

81

Norwegian Current

A warm surface current that branches off from the Gulf Stream and flows into the Norwgian Sea between Iceland and the British Isles.

82

Nucleus

The positively charged central region of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons and containing almost all of the mass of the atom.

83

Nudibranch

A sea slug. A member of the mollusk class Gastropoda that has no protective covering as an adult. Respiration is carried on by gills or other projections on the dorsal surface.

84

Nurdle

A small, rounded piece of pre-production plastic.

85

Nutrient

Any of a number of organic or inorganic compounds used by primary producers. Nitrogen and phosphorous compounds are important examples.

86

Observation

An occurrence that can be measured with one's senses.

87

Ocean

The entire body of saltwater that covers 70.8% of Earth's surface.

88

Ocean acidification

The process by which the ocean's pH is lowered, which increases its acidity.

89

Ocean acoustical tomography

A method by which changes in water temperature may be determined by changes in the speed of transmission of sound. It has the potential to help map ocean circulation patterns over large ocean areas.

90

Ocean beach

The beach on the open-ocean side of a barrier island.

91

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)

A program that replaced the Deep Sea Drilling Project in 1983, focusing on drilling the continental margins using the drill ship JOIDES Resolution.

92

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

A technique that involves generating energy by using the difference in temperature between surface waters and deep waters in low latitude regions.

93

Oceanic Common Water

Deep water found in Pacific and Indian Oceans as a result of mixing of Antarctic Bottom Water and North Atlantic Deep Water.

94

Oceanic Crust

A mass of rock with a basaltic composition that is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) thick.

95

Oceanic Province

The division of the pelagic environment where the water depth is greater than 200 meters (660 feet).

96

Oceanic Ridge

A portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system that is characterized by slow-spreading and steep slopes.

97

Oceanic Rise

A portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system that is characterized by fast spreading and gentle slopes.

98

Oceanic Sediment

The inorganic abyssal clays and the organic oozes that accumulate slowly on the deep-ocean floor.

99

Oceanography

The scientific study of the floor of the ocean, the water itself, physical processes such as waves, currents, and tides, and the organisms contained within the ocean. AKA Oceanology.

100

Ocelli

A light-sensitive organ around the base of many medusoid bells.

101

Odontoceti

The toothed whales

102

Offset

Separation that occurs due to movement along a fault.

103

Offshore

The comparatively flat submerged zone of variable width extending from the breaker line to the ege of the continental shelf.

104

Galápagos Rift

Divergent plate boundary extending eastward from the Galapagos Islands toward South America. The first deep sea hydrothermal vent bio-community was discovered here in 1977

105

Gas hydrate

A latticelike compound composed of water and natural gas (usually methane) formed in high-pressure and low-temperature environments. Also known as clathrates because of their cagelike chemical structure.

106

Gastropoda

A class of mollusks, most of which possess an asymmetrical, spiral one-piece shell and a well developed flattened foot. A well-developed head will usually have two eyes and one or two pairs of tentacles. Includes snails, limpets, abalone, cowries, sea hares, and sea slugs

107

Geostrophic current

A surface current that is the result of a near balance between gravitational force and the coriolis effect

108

Ghost fishing

Any lost of discarded fishing gear that continues to catch marine organisms after it has been abandoned

109

Gill

A thin walled projection from some part of the external body or the digestive tract used for respiration in a water environment

110

Glauconite

A group of green hydrogenous minerals consisting of hydrous silicates of potassium and iron

111

Globigerina Ooze

An ooze that contains a large percentage of the calcareous tests of the foraminifer Globigerina

112

Gondwanaland

A hypothetical protocontinent of the Southern Hemisphere named for the Gondwana region of India. It included present Africa, Antarctica, Australia, India, and South America

113

Graded Bedding

Stratification in which each layer displays a decrease in grain size from bottom to top

114

Grain size

Average size of grains in a material sample

115

Granite

Light colored igneous rock rich in nonferromagnesian minerals such as feldspar and quartz

116

Gravity Wave

A wave for which the primary restoring force is gravity

117

Groin

A low artificial structure built perpendicular to the shore to interfere with longshore transport

118

Groin field

A bunch of packed together groins (not an orgy)

119

Gross ecological efficiency

The amount of energy passed between trophic levels

120

Gross primary production

The total carbon fixed into organic molecules through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis by a discrete autotrophic community

121

Grunion

Small fish of coastal waters of California or Mexico that spawns at night along beaches during the high tides of spring and summer. Only fish that goes entirely out of water to spawn.

122

Oligotrophic

Exhibiting low levels of biological production, such as the centers of subtropical gyres.

123

Omnivore

An animal that feeds on both plants and animals.

124

Oolite

A deposit formed of small spheres from 0.25 to 2 millimeters in diameter. Each oolite is composed of concentric layers of calcite.

125

Ooze

A pelagic sediment containing at least 30% skeletal remains of pelagic organisms, the balance being clay minerals. Oozes are further defined by the chemical composition of the organic remains (siliceous or calcareous) and by their characteristic organisms (e.g. diatomaceous ooze, foraminifer ooze).

126

Opal

An amorphous form of silica (SiO2 * nH2O) That usually contains from 3 to 9% water. It forms the shells of radiolarians and diatoms.

127

Ophiolite

Uplifted continental crust above sea level by tectonic processes. Usually green-colored metamorphic peridotite and serpentinite.

128

Opposition

The separation of two heavenly bodies by 180 degrees relative to Earth. The Sun and Moon are in opposition during the full moon phase.

129

Orbital wave

A wave phenomenon in which energy is moved along the interface between fluids of different densities. The wave form is propagated by the movement of fluid particles in their orbital paths.

130

Orthogonal Line

A line constructed perpendicular to a wave front and spaced so that the energy between lines is equal at all times. Orthogonals are used to help determine how energy is distributed along the shoreline by breaking waves.

131

Waning Crescent

The moon between the third quarter and new moon phases

132

Waning Gibbous

Moon between the third quarter and full phases

133

Homeothermic

warm-blooded

134

Warm Front

Weather front in which a warm air mass moved into and over a cold air mass producing a broad band of gentle precipitation.

135

Water mass

A body of water identifiable by its temperature, salinity, or chemical content.

136

Wave

A disturbance that moves over the surface or through a medium with a speed determined by the properties of the medium.

137

Osmosis

The process by which water molecules move through a semipermeable membrane from higher water molecule concentration (lower salinity) to lower water molecule concentration (higher salinity).

138

Osmotic pressure

A measure of the tendency for osmosis to occur. It is the pressure that must be applied to the more concentrated solution to prevent the passage of water molecules into it from the less concentrated solution.

139

Osmotic regulation

Physical and biological processes used by organisms to counteract the osmotic effects of differences in osmotic pressures of their body fluids and the water in which they live.

140

Ostracoda

An order of crustaceans that are minute and compressed within a bivalve shell.

141

Otocyst

Gravity-sensitive organs around the bell of a medusa.

142

Outer sublittoral zone

The continental shelf below the intersection with the euphotic zone where no plants grow attached to the bottom.

143

Outgassing

The process by which gases are removed from within Earth's interior.

144

Overfishing

A situation that occurs when adult fish in a population are harvested faster than their natural rate of reproduction.

145

Oxygen compensation depth

The depth in the ocean at which marine plants receive just enough solar radiation to meet their basic metabolic needs. It marks the base of the euphotic zone.

146

Oxygen Minimum Layer (OML)

A zone of low dissolved oxygen concentration that occurs at a depth of about 700 to 1000 meters (2300 to 3280 feet).

147

Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)

A natural and cyclic pattern of ocean-atmosphere variability in the Pacific Ocean that lasts 20 to 30 years and influences sea surface temperatures.

148

Pacific Ocean

The ocean located between Australia, Asia, North America, and South America; the largest ocean in the world.

149

Pacific Ring of Fire

An extensive zone of volcanic and seismic activity that coincides roughly with the borders of the Pacific Ocean.

150

Pacific Tsunami Warning Center

A tsunami warning center that was established in Hawaii after the devastating 1946 tsunami; it coordinates information from 25 Pacific Rim countries.

151

Pacific Warm Pool

A large region of warm surface water on the western side of the Pacific Ocean.

152

Paleoclimatology

The study of ancient climates on Earth.

153

Adiabatic

Pertaining to a change in the temperature of a mass resulting from compression or expansion. It requires no addition of heat to or loss of heat from the substance.

154

Aerosol

A type of suspended particle in the atmosphere that can affect the atmosphere's reflectivity and its ability to trap heat.

155

Age of Discovery

The 30-year period from 1492 to 1522 when Europeans explored the continents of North and South America and the globe was circumnavigated for the first time.

156

Agulhas Current

A warm surface current that carries Indian ocean water around the southern tip of Africa and into the Atlantic Ocean.

157

Air mass

A large volume of air that has a definite region of origin and distinctive characteristics.

158

Alaskan Current

A cool surface current that carries water in a counterclockwise fashion in the Gulf of Alaska.

159

Albedo

The fraction on incident electromagnetic radiation reflected by a surface.

160

Algae

Primarily aquatic, eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms that have no root, stem, or leaf steams. can be microscopic or macroscopic.

161

Alkaline

Having a pH greater than 7, indicating a substance that releases an excess of hydroxide ions into solution. Also called basic.

162

Amino acid

One of more than 20 naturally occurring compounds that contain NH2 and COOH groups. They combine to form proteins.

163

Amnesic shellfish poisoning

Partial or total loss of memory resulting from poisoning caused by eating shellfish with high levels of domoic acid, a toxic produced by a diatom.

164

Amphidromic point

A nodal, or "no-tide," point in the ocean or sea around which the crest of the tide wave rotates during one tidal period.

165

Amphipoda

A crustacean order containing laterally compressed members such as the "beach hoppers."

166

Anadromous

Pertaining to a species of fish that spawns in freshwater and then migrates into the ocean to grow to maturity.

167

Anaerobic

Requiring or occurring in the absence of free oxygen.

168

Anaerobic respiration

Respiration carried on in the absence of free oxygen. some bacteria and protozoans carry on respiration this way.

169

Anchovy

A small silvery fish that swims though the water with its mouth open to catch its food.

170

Andesite

A gray, fine-grained volcanic rock composed chiefly of plagioclase feldspar.

171

Anhydrite

A colorless, white, gray, blue, or light purple evaporite mineral (anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4) that usually occurs as layers associated with gypsum deposits.

172

Animalia

A kingdom of many-celled animals.

173

Anion

An atom that has gained one or more electrons and as an electrical negative charge.

174

Annelida

A phylum of elongated segmented worms.

175

Anomalistic month

The time required for the Moon to go from perigee to perigee, 27.5 days.

176

Anoxic

Without oxygen.

177

Antarctic Bottom Water

A water mass that forms in the Weddell Sea, sinks to the ocean floor, and spreads across the bottom of all oceans.

178

Antarctic Circle

The latitude 66.5 degrees south.

179

Goiter

An enlargement of the human thyroid gland often associated with an iodine deficiency.

180

Alveoli

A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.