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Flashcards in Missed Quizbowl questions Deck (50):
1

When was the first recorded voyage by sea?

7250 BCE

2

The circumference was first accurately calculated by who?

Eratosthenes

3

Who were highly accomplished seamen who participated in exploration and trade in the north Atlantic?

Vikings

4

What European explorer discovered Florida?

Juan Ponce de Leon

5

Who created the first chronometer?

John Harrison

6

Who was the first European to chart the Pacific Ocean?

James Cook

7

What is Charles Darwin known for in relation to Oceanography?

Study of Coral Reefs

8

The Greek word graphia refers to what?

The act of recording and describing

9

The root of a word, -ology means what?

The study of

10

By the 4th century BCE who had traveled as far north as the coast of England?

Pytheas

11

The fetch refers to __________

the distance over which wind blows without interruption

12

Lines of equal temperature are called what?

Isotherms

13

To develop successfully the embryo of pacific cod require what?

A narrow temperature range

14

Most marine fish have cellular fluid with salinity ______

Lower than the salinity of sea water

15

Fresh water fish have body fluids that are _____

More saline than the surrounding water

16

What does SST stand for?

Sea Surface Temperature

17

Primary production in the temperate latitudes varies with ______

Season

18

What is a baby eel called?

elver

19

Do all salmon spawn once and die?

No

20

Are plants primary producers?

Yes

21

Are all animals heterotrophs?

Yes

22

Ecosystems operate by exchanging what two things?

Energy and matter

23

What bacteria breaks down organic material and causes the absence of oxygen?

Anaerobic

24

What are the two principle types of upwelling?

Equatorial and Coastal

25

What determines the speed of a fish?

Shape, Size, and Build

26

Potential biomass production decreases with increasing _____ in the food chain?

Trophic level

27

What is the part of land that touches the sea and changes location with tide?

The beach

28

Refraction of waves can result in a decrease of what?

Strength

29

Barrier islands are composed of what?

Sediment

30

What are estuaries?

Region where fresh water meets salt water

31

What are salt wedge estuaries?

Estuaries where the mouth of the river directly meets the ocean, creating a sharp barrier between saltwater and freshwater

32

A partially mixed estuary has a weaker what?

Halocline

33

Environmental diversity in estuaries favor a what food system?

Triphosphate

34

Coral reefs thrive best on what kind of water?

Clear, clean water

35

Where do gas hydrates occur?

Marine sediments within or beneath permafrost

36

Where do sand and gravel generally occur?

Near the shore as terrigenous sediments

37

Where do manganese nodules form?

Seabed sediment, often partially or completely buried

38

Do mangrove swamps provide natural protection from storm surges and coastal flooding?

Yes

39

Seabird decline in Scotland was a classic example of what?

Trophic cascade

40

New Orleans' hurricane susceptibility is mainly caused by what?

Low elevation and human destruction of wetlands

41

Can seaweed grow on the aphotic zone?

No

42

The concentration of what ion determines the ph of water?

H+

43

Carbon dioxide and water form what?

Carbonic Acid

44

What controls the rate at which the oceans absorb CO2?

Ocean Acidity

45

Where is salinity the highest?

20-23 degrees north and south

46

What increases salinity?

Evaporation, formation of sea ice

47

Name the four layers of the atmosphere from lowest to highest.

Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere

48

The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is what?

14.7 psi or 1013.25 millibars

49

The Coriolis effect results from what?

Lower rotational velocities at higher latitudes

50

What decreases ocean salinity?

Precipitation, runoff, rivers, and melting sea ice