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Flashcards in Ocean Currents Deck (58)
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1

Define Deep Currents

High density caused by temperature and salinity differences at the surface

2

What are the three methods to indirectly measure water currents?

Internal density distribution, TOEX/Posidon satellite to determine ocean bulges, Doppler flow meter to transmit low frequency sound signals

3

What two methods directly measure ocean currents?

A floating device is released and tracked through time, a fixed contraption measures flow through a propeller

4

How much of the wind's energy is transferred to the ocean surface?

2 percent

5

What pattern would surface currents follow if there were not any continents on Earth?

The wind belts

6

Surface currents occur within and above the _____.

pychnocline (layer of rapidly changing density)

7

How deep do surface currents exist?

One Kilometer

8

How much of the world's ocean water is affected by surface currents?

Ten percent

9

What currents are encouraged by the trade winds?

The N or S equatorial currents

10

What are western boundary currents and what contributes to them?

Currents traveling along the western current of their basin, Coriolis effect

11

What current flows south on the eastern edge of South America?

Brazil Current

12

What current flows north along the eastern edge of North America?

Gulf Stream

13

What current is warm and cold and exist on the southern edge of Alaska?

Alaskan Current

14

What current flows North along the western coast of South America?

Peru Current

15

Which current flows South along the western coast of North America?

California Current

16

What current flows North Across the northern Atlantic and is warm?

N. Atlantic Current

17

What current flows north up the lower eastern coast of South America and is cold?

Falkland Current

18

The Canary Current flows where and is what type of current?

South off of the coast of Europe and northern coast of Africa, cold

19

What current flows north off of the southwestern coast of Africa and is cold?

Benguela Current

20

What current flows south on the eastern coast of Africa and is warm?

Agulhas Current

21

What warm currents exist in the southern part of the Indian Ocean?

N. Equatorial Current flowing West, E. Equatorial Current flowing East, S. Equatorial Current flowing West

22

What current flows near the western coast of Australia coming from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and goes North, and is cold?

W. Australian Current

23

What current flows south off of western coast of Australia and is warm?

Leeuwin Current

24

What current flows south near the eastern coast of Australia and is warm?

E. Australian Current

25

What current flows north off of the coast of Asia and is warm?

Kuroshio Current

26

What current flows south off of the northern coast of Asia and comes from the Arctic cold waters and is cold?

Oyashio Current

27

What is a subpolar Gyre?

currents that rotate opposite the adjacent subtropical gyre

28

The equatorial, western boundary, prevailing westerly, and eastern boundary currents combine to create a ______.

Subtropical Gyre

29

Who observed that the Arctic Ocean ice moved 20 to 40 degrees to the right of the wind blowing across the surface and on what voyage was he on?

Fridtjof Nansen, Fram

30

Who developed a circulation model called the Ekman spiral?

V. Walfrid Ekman a Swedish physicist