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Flashcards in History of Oceanography Deck (45):
1

When is migration throughout the Southwestern Pacific thought to have begun?

2500 BC

2

When did the Polynesians successfully reach the Hawaiian Islands?

Probably between 450 to 600 AD

3

Near the equator which direction to the stars appear to travel on a north to south axis?

East to west

4

Who began to catalog marine organisms?

Aristotle

5

Who in 270 to 190 BC calculated the Earth's circumference to be 40,250 km only 183 km off of the actual circumference?

Eratosthenes

6

Who created the first world atlas and established world boundaries?

Ptolemy

7

Where did the Vikings reach in 871?

Iceland

8

Where did Erik Thorvaldsen discover in 982?

Greenland

9

Who created the 1769 Franklin-Folger chart of the Gulf Stream current?

Benjamin Franklin

10

When was the US Naval Hydrographic Office set up?

1830

11

Lieutenant Matthew F. Maury produced the first what in 1847?

Wind and current charts of the North Atlantic

12

Who created the still generally accepted atoll formation theory?

Charles Darwin

13

Edward Forbes began a what around the British Isles and Mediterranean and Aegean Seas?

Systematic survey of Marine life

14

Who mistakenly theorized the environment below 550 m was without life?

Edward Forbes

15

Who tested theories on ocean current by freezing a vessel and floating with it?

Fridtjof Nansen

16

When was NOAA formed?

1970

17

When was the ten year International Decade of Ocean Exploration?

1970's

18

Who was the first European explorer to reach India?

Vasco De Gama

19

Where was Vasco de Gama from?

Portugal

20

Who led the first expedition that successfully circumnavigated the globe?

Ferdinand Magellan

21

Who was the first to round the Cape of Good Hope?

Bartolomeu Dias

22

Who was the first European explorer to reach Central America?

Christopher Columbus

23

Where was Columbus from? Who sponsored his exploration?

Genoa, Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

24

What French explorer led 3 expeditions to Canada in search of the Northwest Passage?

Jacques Cartier

25

Who was the first European to set foot in Florida?

Ponce de Leon

26

Who was a Portuguese Prince and patron of explorers.

Henry the Navigator

27

Who developed a recognizable map of the Mediterranean region in 450 BCE?

Herodotus

28

Who published the first chart of the Gulf Stream? What year?

Benjamin Franklin, 1770

29

Who discovered the shipwrecked Titanic, and in what year?

Dr. Robert Ballard, 1985

30

Which man invented the first bathyscaphe in 1937?

Auguste Piccard

31

Which man took a bathyscaphe to the bottom of the Marianas Trench on January 23, 1960?

Jacques Piccard (Son of Auguste Piccard)

32

Which person is famous for her books Silent Spring and The Sea Around Us, which brought attention to DDT and other toxic chemicals?

Rachael Carson

33

Which submarine was the first to sink a warship?

H.L. Hunley. Part of Confederate Army.

34

What happened to the USS Thresher?

The submarine was traveling along a pychnocline and was caught by an internal wave. The wave pushed it down to depth and it imploded.

35

What was the name of Jacques Cousteau‘s ship?

Calypso

36

What was the name of the wind power system developed by Cousteau?

Turbosail

37

Cousteau’s invention that allowed people to swim underwater for long periods of time

Aqualung

38

Name do the original old-timey dive helmet?

Miller Dunn Helmet

39

What were the limitations of the Miller Dunn Helmet?

Had to have a boat to pump in air
Hard to see out of
Could only walk on the sea floor

40

Who invented the bathysphere and when?

Otis Barton, 1930

41

Name of one of Cousteau’s most famous films and why was it significant?

The silent world, first underwater movie in color

42

Where was the first voyage of the Calypso?

The Red Sea

43

Camera invented by Cousteau

Calypso-Phot

44

The name of the underwater houses built by Cousteau

Conshelf

45

Who was the first person to circumnavigate Antarctica?

James cook