Soil Layers Rock Layers and Minerals Flashcards Preview

Ocean Bowl Dos.0 > Soil Layers Rock Layers and Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Soil Layers Rock Layers and Minerals Deck (33):
1

Rock layers are also called

strata

2

The Grand Canyon was formed in what era?

Cenozoic

3

A soil is composed of __% ____ _____

45% mineral matter

4

A soil scientist is called a

pedologist

5

The original mineral complex from which a soil is formed is called the soil's

parent material

6

The amount and availability to plants of elements necessary for plant growth is called?

Fertility

7

In aquatic environments, lithification is preceded by

sedimentation

8

What is the descending order of the soil horizons?

O, A, E, B, C, R

9

The O Horizon consists of

The top, organic layer of soil, made up mostly of leaf litter and humus.

10

The A Horizon consists of

The topsoil, a dark layer where seeds germinate and plant roots grow. It is made up of humus mixed with mineral particles.

11

What is humus? NOT THE FOOD ITEM. That's hummus. Note the second "m". I would not recommend eating humus - it would taste like dirt. Hummus on the other hand, is fucking delicious.

Humus is decomposed organic matter. That's why it would taste like dirt.

12

The E Horizon consists of

A light layer made up mostly of sand and silt, having lost most of its minerals and clay due to eluviation.

13

What is eluviation?

The transport of soil material from upper layers of soil to lower levels by downward precipitation of water across soil horizons.

14

The product of illuviation is?

An iluvial deposit

15

What is illuviation?

The accumulation of a material that is being transported downward.

16

The B Horizon consists of

The subsoil, which contains clay and mineral deposits that it receives from layers above it via eluviation.

17

What mineral deposits does the B Horizon primarily consist of?

Iron, aluminum oxides, and calcium carbonate

18

The C Horizon consists of

The regolith: slightly broken-up bedrock. Plant roots do not penetrate into this layer; very little organic material is found in this layer.

19

The R Horizon consists of

Bedrock: the unweathered rock layer beneath all other layer.

20

How many orders of soil are there in soil taxonomy? Can you name them all?

12: Alfisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodosols, Ultisols, Gelisols, Andisols, and Vertisols.

21

Gelisols are

Soils with permafrost within 2 m of the surface

22

Histosols are

Organic soils

23

Spodosols are

Acid forest soils with a subsurface accumulation of metal-humus complexes

24

Andisols are

Soils formed in volcanic ash

25

Oxisols are

Intensely weathered soils of tropical and subtropical environments

26

Vertisols are

Clayey soils with high shrink/swell capacity

27

Aridisols are

Calcium carbonate-containing soils of arid environments with subsurface horizon development

28

Ultisols are

Strongly leached soils with a subsurface zone of clay accumulation and

29

Mollisols are

Grassland soils with high base status

30

Alfisols are

Moderately leached soils with a subsurface zone of clay accumulation and >35% base saturation

31

Inceptisols are

Soils with weakly developed subsurface horizons

32

Entisols are

Soils with little or no morphological development

33

Plimsols are

A type of shoe