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Flashcards in Phyla of Ocean Life Deck (29):
1

Sponges (Phylum Porifera) can reproduce sexually and asexually. What is the photo below and what type of reproduction is it?

Gemmules, asexually (budding). Similar to spores in that they can survive very extreme environments. 

2

In sponges, an oculum is ______. 

A single, large body opening at the top for water and wastes to be expelled. 

3

In sponges, flagellated cells line the body cavity. What are these called? 

Choanocytes OR collar cells

4

The body cavity of a sponge is called a _____. 

Spongocoel

5

In some sponges, spicules are present. What are spicules and what are compounds are they made of? 

Star or spike-like structural elements made of calicum carbonate or silica. 

6

Nematocysts are ____________. 

Stinging cells containing toxins, used to hunt and defend in Cnidarians

7

Identify the phylum below. 

Phylum Cnidaria (Called a planula - larval stage of life cycle)

8

Identify the organism below and classify it. 

Diatom (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Class Bacillariophyceae)

9

Identify the organism below and classify it. 

Dinoflagellate (Phylum Dinoflagellata)

10

What are zooanthellae?

Zooanthellae are single-celled protists (a non-mobile form of dinoflagellate) that live in symbiosis with some marine invertebrates, including coral. Most are in the genus Symbiodinium. 

11

A fish that is born in fresh water, goes to open ocean, and returns to fresh water to spawn is called what? Examples?

Anadromous Salmon, smelt, sturgeon, striped bass.

12

A fish that is born in open ocean, lives in fresh water, and returns to the open ocean to spawn is called what? Examples?

Catadromous Eels. 

13

Lecithotrophic means what? Give examples of lecithotrophic larvae. 

Larvae with a yolk as a source of nutrition. These usually can be dispersed longer distances than "crawl-away" larvae. Tunicates, most fish, and some invertebrates like corals.

14

Jawless fish are in what superclass? Examples?

AgnathaHagfish and Lampreys. 

15

Bony fish are in what superclass? 

Osteichthyes. Literally any fish you can think of. 

16

Cartilagenous fish are in what superclass?

ChondrichthyesSharks and rays. 

17

A class of Osteichthyes, this class is distinguished by lobed fins. 

Class Sarcopterygii 

18

This fish has only two extant species in the world, and is one of the few remaining members of class Sarcopterygii, the other being the lungfish. 

Coelacanth 

19

Which class are the ray-finned fish? 

Actinopterygii

20

Whales belong to which order? What are the two sub-orders of whales?

CetaceaOdontoceti - toothed whalesMysteceti - baleen whales

21

Stony corals are in what order? 

Scleractinia

22

Jellyfish (class Scyphozoa) are distinguished from corals (class Anthozoa) in what manner?

Anthozoans do not not have a medusa stage; their planulas attach to a rock, where they live as a sessile organism exclusively. Scyphozoans live mostly as a medusa. 

23

The reworking of soil and sediments by animals or plants is called what? 

Bioturbidation

24

One of the most important bioturbidators on coral reefs are _________. 

Sea cucumbers. (They can move up to 4600 kg of sediment, dry weight per year.) 

25

Marine birds adapt to the sea in many ways. What are some examples? 

Water-resistant feathers (oils from preening glands); salt glands; curved bills; webbed feet. 

26

Sea lions, fur seals, seals, and walruses are all in the group _____. 

Pinnipeds (unranked clade)

27

Sirenians include which two organisms? 

Dugongs (Family Dugongidae) and manatees (Family Trichechidae). 

28

Testudines include what organisms? 

Turtles, terrapins, and tortoises. 

29

Stromatolites are mostly extinct, except for populations in extreme environments. Where is the most famous population of living stromatolites, and when were they discovered? 

Shark Bay, Australia; 1956.