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Flashcards in Oil Deck (44):
1

The Deepwater BP Mancando Well Spill in the Gulf of Mexico happened when?

2010

2

What ship had the largest oil spill to date?

Atlantic Empress

3

When did the Atlantic Empress spill occur and where?

1979, West Indies

4

How many tons of oil was spilled in the Exxon Valdez?

38,800 tons (35000 metric tons)

5

The largest oil spill on record happened when and where?

1991, Kuwait/Persian Gulf (Persian Gulf Wars)

6

How much oil was spilled in of the Gulf of Mexico?

700,000 tons

7

How many people died as a result of the BP Mancando well accident?

11

8

Why is Coal Oil Point in Santa Barbara named in such a manor?

Natural oil and gas seeps from the ocean

9

What famous "adventurer" brought attention to floating tar?

Thor Heyerdahl

10

Floating tar was mostly from?

ballast water after cleaning oil ships

11

What three principal phase components is oil made of?

crude oil, natural gas, and condensate

12

What is natural gas mostly made of?

methane

13

_____ is gaseous under the surface and liquid at the surface?

condensate

14

No 2 Fuel is used for?

Home heating oil

15

Refining of crude oil is done through what two main processes?

Cracking and distillation

16

Marine organisms mostly synthesize what type of hydrocarbon?

Simple ones, n-alkanes, and some alkenes

17

In the 1970s about how many oil spills occurred per year?

24.6

18

Today about how many oil spills occur per year?

1.7

19

Accidental input of oil into the marine environment account for about what percent of total oil introduction in the past few decades?

ten

20

What source released the most amount of petroleum into the ocean in the 1990s?

Natural seeps

21

Accidental oil spills account for approximately what percent of the world's marine oil input?

5 to 10 percent

22

_____ is driven by the turbulence field of the oceansurface waters and is connected toocean eddies at various scales.

Horizontal Distribution

23

An interactive effect of the windblowing across the surface waterof the ocean in a manner that createsconvergence and divergencezones in surface water are what?

Langmuir Circulation

24

When spilled, the lower molecularweight chemicals in oil will do what?

Evaporate

25

Emulsification is the act of what?

Dispersing liquids or compounds within another until they are mixed. Such as mixing oil and vinegar as best as you can.

26

In respect to oil, what can comeashore on beaches, rocky intertidalareas and wetlands such asmarshes and mangroves?

Oil slicks and mousse

27

Oil entering wetlands can exist for up to how long?

Decades

28

ADIOS stands for?

Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills

29

Group V oils do what in water?

Sink

30

What is a Neuston Net?

A contraption with a large rectangular mouth and net used for sampling large quantities of water

31

What type of marine animal seems to be the most sensitive to oil spills?

Crustaceans/small amphipods

32

PAH stands for

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

33

The Environmental Sensitivity Index was developed when?

1977

34

What does the Environmental Sensitivity Index tell someone?

the typeof spill response that will be most effectiveand when to deploy the response toprotect these resources.

35

NEBA stands for?

Net Environmental Benefit Analysis

36

All _____ have a well-developed capacity to metabolize and eliminate PAHs and other oil constituents such as aliphatic hydrocarbons

teleost fish

37

How many natural seeps exist in the Gulf of Mexico?

22,000

38

Why is naturally seeped oil generally better for a marine environment than spilled oil?

Natural seeps contain lower density alkanes and alkenes, while spills contain a mixture of dense and non-dense oil products, namely toxic PAHs

39

Name some aerobic hydrocarbon degraders?

Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria and the Firmicutes and fungi

40

How many kilometers of coastline did the BP Gulf of Mexico spill of 2010 effect?

1773 km

41

Jet Fuels and gasoline are classified as what type of oil?

Type 1 (very light)

42

Diesel, No. 2 Fuel Oil, Light Crudes are classified as what type of oil?

Type 2 (light)

43

Most Crude Oils are classified as what type?

Type 3 (Medium)

44

Heavy Crude Oils, No. 6 Fuel Oil, Bunker C are classified as what?

Type 4 (Heavy)