Flashcards in Metabolism Deck (31):
Utilizing compounds for the generation of energy
Utilization of energy to produce compounds
What is a major intermediate in several pathways of energy production?
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Generates 5 carbon sugars for nucleotides
Glucose to pyruvate, important side products in some tissues (Glycerol-3-phosphate, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate)
Synthesis of glucose from pyruvate (non-carb sources).
Restricted to the liver/kidney
Source from carbs in glycoproteins and ptoteoglycans
Source of glucuronides
Glucose (very active in the liver). Makes poorly soluble compounds more soluble in aqueous environment, thus more easily extracted. Active on bilirubin and drug substrates.
What is Acetyl-CoA a substrate for?
TCA cycle, Lipogenesis, Cholesterol synthesis, Ketone bodies
What are the two end fates for amino acids?
Elimination as urea, reutilization to form another amino acid
What is the main source of nitrogen for the body?
Where does gluconeogenesis occur?
What type of metabolism can RBCs not utilize?
Aerobic carbohydrate metabolism
In what areas of the body is glycogen mainly found?
Muscle and liver
In what areas of the body are triglycerides mainly found?
What macros do phospholipids require?
Lipids, carbs, amino acids
What macros do nucleotides require?
Carbs, amino acids
Where does fatty acid oxidation occur?
Inside the mitochondria
Where does fatty acid synthesis occur?
Inside the cytosol
How many essential carbs are there?
What type of fiber increases stool bulk and decreases transit time?
Cellulose and hemicellulose
What type of fiber Increases stool bulk and binds cholesterol/carcinogens?
What types of fiber decrease the rate of gastric emptying/carb absorption/serum cholesterol?
Pectin and gums
What is the "recommended" daily protein intake?
Which amino acid is considered essential for children?
When would an individuals have a positive nitrogen balance?
When would an individuals have a negative nitrogen balance?
Starvation, diseases, severe burns
2 Essential fatty acids
Linoleic acid (_6) and LinoleNic acid (_3)
Fats aid in absorbtion of what?
fat soluble vitamins
Extreme emanciation from prolonged negative energy balance. Loss of protein from muscle/liver/heart/kidneys