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Flashcards in Protein Synthesis Deck (23)
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1
Q
What are the 5 steps of protein synthesis?
A
Activation. Initiation. Elongation. Termination. Posttraslational modifications.
2
Q
What is the structure of tRNA?
A
Cloverleaf: 3' end of molecule (CCA sequence), The T psi C loop, D loop, anticodon loop
3
Q
In what loop does the tRNA bind to the ribosome?
A
T psi C loop
4
Q
Where is the amino acid binding site on tRNA?
A
3' end of the molecule
5
Q
Isoacceptor tRNA
A
Recognize different codons, but all have the same animo acid
6
Q
Amino acyl tRNA synthetases
A
Couple the amino acid to tRNA via an ester bond. Requires 2 ATP
7
Q
tRNA f met
A
Initiation codon for prokaryotes
8
Q
What initiation factors bind to 30S subunit?
A
IF 1 and 3
9
Q
What does IF2 bind to in prokaryotes?
A
tRNA f met (then binds to AUG at P site)
10
Q
What is the initiation factor essential for lining up the start codon on the ribosome?
A
eIF-4E (is an mRNA cap binding factor)
11
Q
What is the leader sequence for prokaryotes?
A
Shine-Dalgarno
12
Q
What determines the efficiency of eukaryotic message translation?
A
Kozac Consensus Sequence
13
Q
3 stages of elongation
A
Binding, peptide bond formation, translocation
14
Q
Polycistronic mRNA
A
One mRNA can code for several proteins, and each one might be translated
15
Q
Polyribosome
A
Ribosomes + mRNA during translation
16
Q
What does the phosphorylation of eIF-2 do in eukaryotes?
A
Inhibits translation
17
Q
Cycloheximide
A
Inhibits peptide bond formation in eukaryotic cells
18
Q
Diphtheria toxin
A
Catalyzes the reaction of NAD+ w/ eukaryotic elongation factor, resulting in inhibition of translocation
19
Q
Cloramphenicol
A
Inhibits peptide bond formation, and can inhibit mitochondrial protein synthesis at high levels in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes
20
Q
Puromycin
A
Causes premature termination in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes
21
Q
Tetracyline
A
Inhibits elongation in prokaryotes
22
Q
Sreptomycin
A
Blocks translation in prokaryotes
23
Q
Erythromycin
A
Inhibits translocation in prokaryotes