Flashcards in Mineral Deck (50)
Principle cation of ECF
Mineral that aids in muscle contraction
Na (Action potential)
Kidneys filtration of Na
Filters out and returns what is needed. Regulate acid-base balance by excreting H+ in exchange for Na+.
Diseases associated with Sodium
Osteoporosis: high salt and increased Ca excretion (K is a protective factor)
Acute toxicity: edema/high BP.
Chronic toxicity: HTN
Major anion of ECF. Helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance (assoc with Na and K). Part of hydrochloride acid.
Deficiency/Toxicity of Chloride
Vomiting, diarrhea, heavy sweating (def)
Bulimia nervosa is common cause of def
Toxicity common due to dehydration
Principle Intracellular cation. Helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance. Aids in nerve impulse transmission/muscle contractions
Deficiency in Potassium
Hypertension. Risk of stroke. Kidney stones. Irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance
Overconsumption of supplements. Kidneys accelerate excretion. Can stop is administered IV.
Most abundant mineral in the body. 99% in bones and teeth. Helps to maintain normal BP.
Calcium in disease prevention
HTN, HLP, DM, Colon Cancer, Obesity?*
Peak bone mass by late 20s. Bone loss with age. Osteopenia (low bone density). Osteoporosis
3 organs of Calcium regulate balance
Bone, Intestines, kidneys
Hormones that aids in Calcium regulation
Second most abundant mineral in the body. Buffer system (DNA/RNA). Energy metabolism/enzyme activation. Cell membranes. Aids in lipid transport.
Toxicity of phosphorus
Disrupts hormonal functions that contribute to kidney failure, HD, bone loss. UL 4000mg
More than half is in bones. Maintains bone health, Catalyst in AP production, Inhibits muscle contraction and blood clotting. Protective factor in HTN.
Deficiency of Mg
HD, stroke, HTN, DM, cancer. Causes tetany. Impairs CNS activity
Oxidized form of sulfur. Amino acid course: Methionine/Cysteine
2 forms of iron in the body
Ferrous iron (Fe2+)
Ferric iron (Fe3+)
Role of iron
Cofactor in Red-Ox Reactions. Part of electron carriers. Hemoglobin/myoglobin
Iron Absorption proteins
Ferritin stores in the small intestine. Transferrin is iron transport protein
Absorption-enhancers for nonheme iron
Major iron source in body
Nonheme (90%) but is not absorbed wll
Factors that inhibit iron absorption
Individual variation in absorption
Most common nutrient deficiency worldwide
Releases iron veery slowly from th liver
Inhibits iron absorption, so inflammation occurs.