Principle cation of ECF
Mineral that aids in muscle contraction
Na (Action potential)
Kidneys filtration of Na
Filters out and returns what is needed. Regulate acid-base balance by excreting H+ in exchange for Na+.
Diseases associated with Sodium
Osteoporosis: high salt and increased Ca excretion (K is a protective factor)
Acute toxicity: edema/high BP.
Chronic toxicity: HTN
Major anion of ECF. Helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance (assoc with Na and K). Part of hydrochloride acid.
Deficiency/Toxicity of Chloride
Vomiting, diarrhea, heavy sweating (def)
Bulimia nervosa is common cause of def
Toxicity common due to dehydration
Principle Intracellular cation. Helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance. Aids in nerve impulse transmission/muscle contractions
Deficiency in Potassium
Hypertension. Risk of stroke. Kidney stones. Irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance
Overconsumption of supplements. Kidneys accelerate excretion. Can stop is administered IV.
Most abundant mineral in the body. 99% in bones and teeth. Helps to maintain normal BP.
Calcium in disease prevention
HTN, HLP, DM, Colon Cancer, Obesity?*
Peak bone mass by late 20s. Bone loss with age. Osteopenia (low bone density). Osteoporosis
3 organs of Calcium regulate balance
Bone, Intestines, kidneys
Hormones that aids in Calcium regulation
Second most abundant mineral in the body. Buffer system (DNA/RNA). Energy metabolism/enzyme activation. Cell membranes. Aids in lipid transport.
Toxicity of phosphorus
Disrupts hormonal functions that contribute to kidney failure, HD, bone loss. UL 4000mg
More than half is in bones. Maintains bone health, Catalyst in AP production, Inhibits muscle contraction and blood clotting. Protective factor in HTN.
Deficiency of Mg
HD, stroke, HTN, DM, cancer. Causes tetany. Impairs CNS activity
Oxidized form of sulfur. Amino acid course: Methionine/Cysteine
2 forms of iron in the body
Ferrous iron (Fe2+) Ferric iron (Fe3+)
Role of iron
Cofactor in Red-Ox Reactions. Part of electron carriers. Hemoglobin/myoglobin
Iron Absorption proteins
Ferritin stores in the small intestine. Transferrin is iron transport protein
Absorption-enhancers for nonheme iron
Major iron source in body
Nonheme (90%) but is not absorbed wll
Factors that inhibit iron absorption
Individual variation in absorption
Most common nutrient deficiency worldwide
Releases iron veery slowly from th liver
Inhibits iron absorption, so inflammation occurs.
How do malaria and parasitic infections affect iron levels>
Can cause deficiency due to blood loss
RBC appearance in iron deficiency
Microcytic and hypochromic
Energy metabolism is impaired. Nt synthesis is altered. Reduces energy levels and mental productivity.
Apathy, lethargy, fatigue.
Genetic failure to control iron absorption. Deficiency or resistance. Use phlebotomy to Tx
Chronic disease and iron
Heart disease (excess). Cancer (free radicals).
GI distress, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Highest concentration in muscle and bone. Supports work of hundreds of proteins. Stabilizes cell membranes/DNA. Synthesis, storage, release of insulin from pancreas. Interacts with blood clotting. Thyroid hormone function. Needed in vit A activation
Proteins that transport zinc
Albumin and transferrin
Accuracy of taste comes from what mineral?
Deficiency of zinc
Growth retardation. CNS damage
GI tract converts iodine into iodide
Roles in body of iodine
Essential for thyroid hormone regulation
Expansion of thyroid cells.
Severe iodine deficiency due pregnancy causes extreme and irreversible mental/physical retardation
Substitute for sulfur in AA. Antioxidant. Part of Glutathoine peroxidase. Enzymes activate/inactivate thyroid
Heart disease seen in Chine. Selenium is shown to be protective to condition
Constituent of enzymes. Iron metabolism, defense against oxidative damage. Possible link to CVD.
Intestinal cells absorb copper but do not release into circulation (lethal)
Copper accumulates in liver and brain.
Bones/metabolically active organs (liver, kidney, pancreas). Cofactor for metabolic enzymes. Bone formation. Conversion of pyruvate to TCA cycle