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Flashcards in Mineral Deck (50):
1

Principle cation of ECF

Na

2

Mineral that aids in muscle contraction

Na (Action potential)

3

Kidneys filtration of Na

Filters out and returns what is needed. Regulate acid-base balance by excreting H+ in exchange for Na+.

4

Diseases associated with Sodium

Hypertension
Osteoporosis: high salt and increased Ca excretion (K is a protective factor)

5

Sodium Deficiency/Toxicity

Hyponatremia (def)
Acute toxicity: edema/high BP.
Chronic toxicity: HTN

6

Chloride's role

Major anion of ECF. Helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance (assoc with Na and K). Part of hydrochloride acid.

7

Deficiency/Toxicity of Chloride

Vomiting, diarrhea, heavy sweating (def)
Bulimia nervosa is common cause of def
Toxicity common due to dehydration

8

Potassium's role

Principle Intracellular cation. Helps maintain fluid/electrolyte balance. Aids in nerve impulse transmission/muscle contractions

9

Deficiency in Potassium

Hypertension. Risk of stroke. Kidney stones. Irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance

10

Potassium Toxicity

Overconsumption of supplements. Kidneys accelerate excretion. Can stop is administered IV.

11

Calcium

Most abundant mineral in the body. 99% in bones and teeth. Helps to maintain normal BP.

12

Calcium in disease prevention

HTN, HLP, DM, Colon Cancer, Obesity?*

13

Calcium deficiency

Peak bone mass by late 20s. Bone loss with age. Osteopenia (low bone density). Osteoporosis

14

3 organs of Calcium regulate balance

Bone, Intestines, kidneys

15

Hormones that aids in Calcium regulation

Parathyroid hormone/Calcitonin

16

Phosphorus

Second most abundant mineral in the body. Buffer system (DNA/RNA). Energy metabolism/enzyme activation. Cell membranes. Aids in lipid transport.

17

Toxicity of phosphorus

Disrupts hormonal functions that contribute to kidney failure, HD, bone loss. UL 4000mg

18

Magnesium

More than half is in bones. Maintains bone health, Catalyst in AP production, Inhibits muscle contraction and blood clotting. Protective factor in HTN.

19

Deficiency of Mg

HD, stroke, HTN, DM, cancer. Causes tetany. Impairs CNS activity

20

Sulfate

Oxidized form of sulfur. Amino acid course: Methionine/Cysteine

21

2 forms of iron in the body

Ferrous iron (Fe2+)
Ferric iron (Fe3+)

22

Role of iron

Cofactor in Red-Ox Reactions. Part of electron carriers. Hemoglobin/myoglobin

23

Iron Absorption proteins

Ferritin stores in the small intestine. Transferrin is iron transport protein

24

Absorption-enhancers for nonheme iron

MFP
Vit C
Some acids/sugars

25

Major iron source in body

Nonheme (90%) but is not absorbed wll

26

Factors that inhibit iron absorption

Phytates
Calcium
Polyphenols
Individual variation in absorption

27

Most common nutrient deficiency worldwide

Iron

28

Hemosiderin

Releases iron veery slowly from th liver

29

Hepcidin

Inhibits iron absorption, so inflammation occurs.

30

How do malaria and parasitic infections affect iron levels>

Can cause deficiency due to blood loss

31

RBC appearance in iron deficiency

Microcytic and hypochromic

32

Iron deficiency

Energy metabolism is impaired. Nt synthesis is altered. Reduces energy levels and mental productivity.

Pica

33

Iron Overload

Apathy, lethargy, fatigue.

34

Hereditary hemochromatosis

Genetic failure to control iron absorption. Deficiency or resistance. Use phlebotomy to Tx

35

Chronic disease and iron

Heart disease (excess). Cancer (free radicals).

36

Iron poisoning

GI distress, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

37

Zinc

Highest concentration in muscle and bone. Supports work of hundreds of proteins. Stabilizes cell membranes/DNA. Synthesis, storage, release of insulin from pancreas. Interacts with blood clotting. Thyroid hormone function. Needed in vit A activation

38

Proteins that transport zinc

Albumin and transferrin

39

Accuracy of taste comes from what mineral?

Zinc

40

Deficiency of zinc

Growth retardation. CNS damage

41

Iodine

GI tract converts iodine into iodide

42

Roles in body of iodine

Essential for thyroid hormone regulation

43

Goiter

Expansion of thyroid cells.

44

Cretinism

Severe iodine deficiency due pregnancy causes extreme and irreversible mental/physical retardation

45

Selenium

Substitute for sulfur in AA. Antioxidant. Part of Glutathoine peroxidase. Enzymes activate/inactivate thyroid

46

Keshawn disease

Heart disease seen in Chine. Selenium is shown to be protective to condition

47

Copper

Constituent of enzymes. Iron metabolism, defense against oxidative damage. Possible link to CVD.

48

Menses disease

Intestinal cells absorb copper but do not release into circulation (lethal)

49

Wilson's disease

Copper accumulates in liver and brain.

50

Manganese

Bones/metabolically active organs (liver, kidney, pancreas). Cofactor for metabolic enzymes. Bone formation. Conversion of pyruvate to TCA cycle