Regulation Of Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Regulation Of Gene Expression Deck (33):
1

What is cDNA's purpose?

Allows eukaryotic proteins to be expressed in E. Coli

2

Reverse transcriptase

Converts mRNA to cDNA (along with DNA polymerase I)

3

DNA polymerase I

Fills in blanks, removes primers, fills in again

4

Linker

Prepares cDNA for cloning into a vector

5

Nucleotide probes

Using amino acids to synthesize a probe to attempt to find the section of DNA desired

6

Immunoscreening

Using clones to find the antibody of the desired protein

7

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Can make millions of copies of a region of DNA to study it

8

RAPD analysis

PCR technique that allows identification of disease causing organisms.

9

Constitutive proteins

Proteins found in relatively constant amounts in the cells regardless of the metabolic state of the cell

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Inducible proteins

Proteins usually found in low concentrations in a given cell, but can be increased markedly in response to proper stimulus

11

Gene Amplification

The replication of a gene responsible for forming a certain protein is greatly increase

12

Transcriptional activators

Most important for gene regulation in eukaryotes

13

Methotrexate

Inhibitor of DHFR that is important to thymidine synthesis, and thus DNA. Cancer cells develop a resistance to methotrexate.

14

Transposons

DNA fragments "jump" via transposase enzyme. Antibiotic resistance genes can jump.

15

Immunoglobins

Antibodies made via gene rearrangement

16

Enhancers

Activator sequences that help bind transcriptional factors.

17

Hormone Responsive Elemements

Hormone specific receptors will bind to hormone specific enhancers, thus producing hormone regulated proteins

18

Metallothionein enhancer

Can activate gene via zinc. Produces mt protein.

19

Pancreatic beta-cell tissue enhancer

Showed that enhancers can be tissue-specific

20

Helix-Turn-Helix binding of transcription factor

2 connected coils of an alpha-helix with one coil lying flush in a major groove and the other turned away about 90º. Found in E. Coli (is a lac repressor protein)

21

Zinc Fingers

Zinc coordinates loop domains in the proteins with each domain bonding to the major groove of the DNA (Estrogen has many zinc fingers)

22

Leucine zipper

Modified/small region of larger DNA bind protein. Holds thee DNA binding alpha-helical domains in correct position for interaction with the DNA

23

Loop binding

NF-Kappa beta: bonds/loops in the protein. To create loops in the DNA. Influences major inflammation pathway in cells

24

JAK-STAT

Signaling pathway vital for the function of cytokines

25

JAKs

Kinases that bind to the receptor. Will phosphorylation the STATs

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STATs

Family of transcription factors that turns on the genes in the DNA after it is phosphorylated to make cytokines

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Loss of gene for STAT 1

Loss of response to viral/bacterial infection

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Loss of STAT 4

No T helper 1 cell function

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Loss of STAT 5

No breast development or lactation

30

What controls play a role in regulating which mRNAs reach the cytoplasm?

Post-transcriptional controls

31

How doe the processing of hnRNA to mRNA regulate post-transcriptional nuclear controls?

Regulation of splicing and message stability

32

Masked RNA

Repressor proteins bind to mRNA and prevents translation

33

Micro-RNA

Small RNA transcripts which regulate the levels and translation of messages. Can signal degradation of mRNA or block translation