Regulation Of Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Regulation Of Gene Expression Deck (33)
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1
Q
What is cDNA's purpose?
A
Allows eukaryotic proteins to be expressed in E. Coli
2
Q
Reverse transcriptase
A
Converts mRNA to cDNA (along with DNA polymerase I)
3
Q
DNA polymerase I
A
Fills in blanks, removes primers, fills in again
4
Q
Linker
A
Prepares cDNA for cloning into a vector
5
Q
Nucleotide probes
A
Using amino acids to synthesize a probe to attempt to find the section of DNA desired
6
Q
Immunoscreening
A
Using clones to find the antibody of the desired protein
7
Q
Polymerase Chain Reaction
A
Can make millions of copies of a region of DNA to study it
8
Q
RAPD analysis
A
PCR technique that allows identification of disease causing organisms.
9
Q
Constitutive proteins
A
Proteins found in relatively constant amounts in the cells regardless of the metabolic state of the cell
10
Q
Inducible proteins
A
Proteins usually found in low concentrations in a given cell, but can be increased markedly in response to proper stimulus
11
Q
Gene Amplification
A
The replication of a gene responsible for forming a certain protein is greatly increase
12
Q
Transcriptional activators
A
Most important for gene regulation in eukaryotes
13
Q
Methotrexate
A
Inhibitor of DHFR that is important to thymidine synthesis, and thus DNA. Cancer cells develop a resistance to methotrexate.
14
Q
Transposons
A
DNA fragments "jump" via transposase enzyme. Antibiotic resistance genes can jump.
15
Q
Immunoglobins
A
Antibodies made via gene rearrangement
16
Q
Enhancers
A
Activator sequences that help bind transcriptional factors.
17
Q
Hormone Responsive Elemements
A
Hormone specific receptors will bind to hormone specific enhancers, thus producing hormone regulated proteins
18
Q
Metallothionein enhancer
A
Can activate gene via zinc. Produces mt protein.
19
Q
Pancreatic beta-cell tissue enhancer
A
Showed that enhancers can be tissue-specific
20
Q
Helix-Turn-Helix binding of transcription factor
A
2 connected coils of an alpha-helix with one coil lying flush in a major groove and the other turned away about 90º. Found in E. Coli (is a lac repressor protein)
21
Q
Zinc Fingers
A
Zinc coordinates loop domains in the proteins with each domain bonding to the major groove of the DNA (Estrogen has many zinc fingers)
22
Q
Leucine zipper
A
Modified/small region of larger DNA bind protein. Holds thee DNA binding alpha-helical domains in correct position for interaction with the DNA
23
Q
Loop binding
A
NF-Kappa beta: bonds/loops in the protein. To create loops in the DNA. Influences major inflammation pathway in cells
24
Q
JAK-STAT
A
Signaling pathway vital for the function of cytokines
25
Q
JAKs
A
Kinases that bind to the receptor. Will phosphorylation the STATs
26
Q
STATs
A
Family of transcription factors that turns on the genes in the DNA after it is phosphorylated to make cytokines
27
Q
Loss of gene for STAT 1
A
Loss of response to viral/bacterial infection
28
Q
Loss of STAT 4
A
No T helper 1 cell function
29
Q
Loss of STAT 5
A
No breast development or lactation
30
Q
What controls play a role in regulating which mRNAs reach the cytoplasm?
A
Post-transcriptional controls
31
Q
How doe the processing of hnRNA to mRNA regulate post-transcriptional nuclear controls?
A
Regulation of splicing and message stability
32
Q
Masked RNA
A
Repressor proteins bind to mRNA and prevents translation
33
Q
Micro-RNA
A
Small RNA transcripts which regulate the levels and translation of messages. Can signal degradation of mRNA or block translation