Flashcards in Vitamins And Minerals Deck (83)
Vitamin D deficiency diseases
Rickets: bones fail to calcify normally
Osteomalacia: poor mineralization of bones (adults)
Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium from bone
Biotin role in CA cycle
Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form OOA
Deficiency in riboflavin
Inflammation of thee membranes. Ariboflavinosis
Vitamin C intake
10 mg a day to prevent overt scurvy. 200 mg absorption maximum. Smoking increases need.
Vitamin E deficiency
Fat malabsorption (cystic fibrosis)
Structure of vitamins
Individual units, not linked together
Damage to riboflavins
UV and radiation. Why milk is sold in opaque containers
Active form of vitamin C
Ascorbic acid (donates 2 hydrogens to become dehydroascorbic acid)
What can the body use to make niacin?
Tryptophan. 60mg of tryptophan makes 1 mg of niacin. Only after protein synthesis needs are met
Vision (from beta-carotene)
Deficiency in Biotin
Skin rash, hair loss, neurological impairment.
Activates folate. Maintains/protects nerve sheath fibers, bone cell activity and metabolism.
Sore throat, cracks/redness at corners of the mouth, painful, smooth, purplish red tongue. Inflammation by skin lesions covered with greasy scales
Difference between fat and water-solvable vitamins
Fat: require bile for digestion/absorption. Thru lymphatic system. Require proteins to transport in bloodstream. Stored in liver and adipose tissue. Can have toxicity due to limited excretion.
Coenzymes of niacin
NAD and NADP. Carries hydrogen and electrons. Protects against neurological degeneration
Inactive forms of vitamins that will be converted to active form in body (ex: beta carotene)
Which B vitamin assists with amino acid metabolism?
Vitamin E toxicity
Liver regulates concentrations
RDA 15mg (Based on alpha-tocopherol only, UL is 1K mg)
Extremely high doses may interfere with vitamin K activity, causing hemorrhage
Coenzyme for FMN and FAD (energy metabolism)
Required in conversion of glutamic acid to gamma carboxyglutamic acid
Primary action in blood clotting (prothrombin). Metabolism of bone proteins (osteocalcin/low bone density)
Alcohol and isoniazid (TB drug)
Stress and vitamin c
Adrenal glands release vitamin c and hormones into the blood
Bioavailability of folate
About 50-100% (more bioavailability for supplements, less for food)
Sources of riboflavin
Milk/dairy products**, whole grain, dark green veggies
Neurological damage. Only if >2g daily for 2 months or more
Which B vitamins help cells to multiply?
Folate and B12
Secretion by liver into bile. Enterohepatic circulation. GI tract hinders absorption
Conditions that respond to vitamin E Tx
Fibrocystic breast disease
Intermittent Claudicaion (leg cramping)
Affects cardiovascular system. Characterized by dilated blood vessels, causing heart to work harder and kidneys to retain Na/H2O, resulting in edema (Thiamin deficiency)
Vitamin C as cofactor
Collagen formation (bone/tooth. Proline to hydroxyproline). Carnitine(hydroxylation). Tryptophan to serotonin. Tyrosine to norepinephrine. Making hormones (thyroxin*).
Activation of folate
GI adds methyl group so can be absorbed and delivered to cells. In cell, B12 activates folate (and activates B12). Now available for DNA synthesis
Forms of B6
Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine
Vitamin D activation
Precursor made from cholesterol via sunlight. Once D3 in system, activated in liver then kidneys. (2 hydroxylations)
3 forms of vitamin A
Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid. (Retinoids: animal source, best source* , Carotenoids: plant)
Acts as an antioxidant. Defends against free radicals. Protects tissues from oxidative stress. Enhances iron absorption. Water soluble.
Body order, sweating, salivation, reduced growth rate. Low BP.
Precursor for vitamin A
Vitamin D toxicity
Raises blood calcium concentrations. Forms stones in soft tissues. May harden blood vessels
Benefits of large nicotinic acid doses
Lower LDL, triglycerides, raise HDL
Vitamin A toxicity
Binding proteins are loaded. Bone defects. Birth defects-teratogen
Similarities of vitamins and energy-yielding nutrients
Essential, organic, available from foods
Cobalt and B12
Cobalt contained by B12, usually hydroxycobalamin or cynocobalamin
Where is B6 stored?
Exclusively in muscle tissue
Sources of vitamin K
GI tract bacteria. Natural in foods.
At risk for vitamin D deficiency
Darker skin, breastfeeding without supplementation, lack of sunlight, not drinking fortified milk
What protein (and source) bind to biotin to prevent its absorption?
Avidin in raw egg white
4 Ds (Pellagra)
Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
Leucine' affect on tryptophan
Interferes with conversion of tryptophan into niacin
Which B vitamins assist enzymes with energy release?
Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin (all coenzymes)
Synthesis of key NTs diminishes. So abnormal compounds during tryptophan metabolism accumulate in the brain. Increase cancer and CVD. Depression, confusion, abnormal wave patterns, convulsions.
Dilates capillaries and causes painful tingling sensation (niacin flush)
Essential. Used to make lecithin and ACh. Manufactured from methionine in body.
Affects nervous system. Characterized by muscle weakness in arms/legs (Thiamin deficiency)
Function of vitamins
No energy yield, assist enzymes that participate in release of energy
Major form of niacin in the blood
Effects of folate deficiency
Neural tube defects, congenital birth defects, anemia
Orotic and Lipoic Acid
B5 (Pantothenic acid)
B15 (Pangamic acid)
B 17 (laetrile)
Natural vitamin K in foods
Common cold and vitamin C
Slight but consistent shortening of cold duration. Deactivates histamine.
Critical in TCA cycle, gluconeogenisis, fatty acid synthesis, breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids
Populations deficient in Thiamin
Malnourished and alcoholics
Niacin chemical structures
Burning Feet Syndrome
Deficiency of pantothenic acid (symptoms?)
GI produced vitamin K
Menaquinone (not enough for sustainability. Must supplement).
Vitamin C deficiency
Gums bleeding around the teeth. Capillaries under skin break easily.
Part of coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphatee (TPP). TPP assists in conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA (removes a C from pyruvate). Thiamin occupies site on nerve cell membrane (nerve and muscle-nerve response depend on it).
Calciferol. D2 from plant, D3 from animal. Fat soluble. Body synthesizes from sunlight or precursor from cholesterol
B vitamins and energy
Helps body use macronutrients for fuel
Cells affected by vitamin A
Epithelial, Goblet, sperm, normal fetal development, bone remodeling, antioxidant.
Deficiency in vitamin A
Measles, night blindness/regular blindness, keratinization.
Pantothenic acid's role in TCA cycle
CoA cofactor that forms acetyl CoA
Conversion of B6
All forms converted into coenzyme PLP (pyridoxal phosphate)
Helps to prevent chain reaction of free. Radicals. Fat soluble. Helps with heart disease and protection of LDLs
B5. Part of Coenzyme A
mental confusion, ataxia, opthaloplegia. Caused by Thiamin deficiency. Usually caused by alcoholism
Role of PLP
Can transfer NH2 group from AA to Keto acid
Conversion of tryptophan to niacin/serotonin
Synthesis of heme, nucleic acids, lecithin
Vitamin K toxicity
High doses reduce effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs.
Aka folacin or folic acid or PGA. Coenzyme for THF and DHF. Converts B12 to coenzyme form. Synthesizes DNA, Regenerates methionine from homocysteine
Vitamin D roles in body
Active form is a hormone bc made in one area then carried to target organ.
Enhances/suppresses gene activity
Protects against cognitive decline