Vitamins And Minerals Flashcards Preview

Biochem > Vitamins And Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vitamins And Minerals Deck (83)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Vitamin D deficiency diseases

A

Rickets: bones fail to calcify normally
Calcium deficiency
Osteomalacia: poor mineralization of bones (adults)
Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium from bone

2
Q

Biotin role in CA cycle

A

Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form OOA

3
Q

Deficiency in riboflavin

A

Inflammation of thee membranes. Ariboflavinosis

4
Q

Vitamin C intake

A

10 mg a day to prevent overt scurvy. 200 mg absorption maximum. Smoking increases need.

5
Q

Vitamin E deficiency

A
Fat malabsorption (cystic fibrosis)
Hemolytic anemia
Neuromuscular dysfunction
6
Q

Structure of vitamins

A

Individual units, not linked together

7
Q

Damage to riboflavins

A

UV and radiation. Why milk is sold in opaque containers

8
Q

Active form of vitamin C

A

Ascorbic acid (donates 2 hydrogens to become dehydroascorbic acid)

9
Q

Retinol

A

Supports reproduction

10
Q

What can the body use to make niacin?

A

Tryptophan. 60mg of tryptophan makes 1 mg of niacin. Only after protein synthesis needs are met

11
Q

Retinal

A

Vision (from beta-carotene)

12
Q

Deficiency in Biotin

A

Skin rash, hair loss, neurological impairment.

13
Q

Vitamin B12

A

Activates folate. Maintains/protects nerve sheath fibers, bone cell activity and metabolism.

14
Q

Ariboflavinosis

A

Sore throat, cracks/redness at corners of the mouth, painful, smooth, purplish red tongue. Inflammation by skin lesions covered with greasy scales

15
Q

Difference between fat and water-solvable vitamins

A

Fat: require bile for digestion/absorption. Thru lymphatic system. Require proteins to transport in bloodstream. Stored in liver and adipose tissue. Can have toxicity due to limited excretion.

16
Q

Coenzymes of niacin

A

NAD and NADP. Carries hydrogen and electrons. Protects against neurological degeneration

17
Q

Provitamins

A

Inactive forms of vitamins that will be converted to active form in body (ex: beta carotene)

18
Q

Which B vitamin assists with amino acid metabolism?

A

B6

19
Q

Vitamin E toxicity

A
Liver regulates concentrations
RDA 15mg (Based on alpha-tocopherol only, UL is 1K mg)
Extremely high doses may interfere with vitamin K activity, causing hemorrhage
20
Q

Riboflavin

A

Coenzyme for FMN and FAD (energy metabolism)

21
Q

Required in conversion of glutamic acid to gamma carboxyglutamic acid

A

Vitamin K

22
Q

Vitamin K

A

Primary action in blood clotting (prothrombin). Metabolism of bone proteins (osteocalcin/low bone density)

23
Q

B6 antagonists

A

Alcohol and isoniazid (TB drug)

24
Q

Stress and vitamin c

A

Adrenal glands release vitamin c and hormones into the blood

25
Q

Bioavailability of folate

A

About 50-100% (more bioavailability for supplements, less for food)

26
Q

Sources of riboflavin

A

Milk/dairy products**, whole grain, dark green veggies

27
Q

B6 toxicity

A

Neurological damage. Only if >2g daily for 2 months or more

28
Q

Which B vitamins help cells to multiply?

A

Folate and B12

29
Q

Retinoic acids

A

Regulates growth

30
Q

Folate disposal

A

Secretion by liver into bile. Enterohepatic circulation. GI tract hinders absorption

31
Q

Conditions that respond to vitamin E Tx

A
Fibrocystic breast disease
Intermittent Claudicaion (leg cramping)
32
Q

Beriberi Wet

A

Affects cardiovascular system. Characterized by dilated blood vessels, causing heart to work harder and kidneys to retain Na/H2O, resulting in edema (Thiamin deficiency)

33
Q

Vitamin C as cofactor

A

Collagen formation (bone/tooth. Proline to hydroxyproline). Carnitine(hydroxylation). Tryptophan to serotonin. Tyrosine to norepinephrine. Making hormones (thyroxin*).

34
Q

Activation of folate

A

GI adds methyl group so can be absorbed and delivered to cells. In cell, B12 activates folate (and activates B12). Now available for DNA synthesis

35
Q

Forms of B6

A

Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine

36
Q

Vitamin D activation

A

Precursor made from cholesterol via sunlight. Once D3 in system, activated in liver then kidneys. (2 hydroxylations)

37
Q

3 forms of vitamin A

A

Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid. (Retinoids: animal source, best source* , Carotenoids: plant)

38
Q

Vitamin C

A

Acts as an antioxidant. Defends against free radicals. Protects tissues from oxidative stress. Enhances iron absorption. Water soluble.

39
Q

Choline Deficiency

A

Body order, sweating, salivation, reduced growth rate. Low BP.

40
Q

Beta-carotene

A

Precursor for vitamin A

41
Q

Vitamin D toxicity

A

Raises blood calcium concentrations. Forms stones in soft tissues. May harden blood vessels

42
Q

Benefits of large nicotinic acid doses

A

Lower LDL, triglycerides, raise HDL

43
Q

Vitamin A toxicity

A

Binding proteins are loaded. Bone defects. Birth defects-teratogen

44
Q

Similarities of vitamins and energy-yielding nutrients

A

Essential, organic, available from foods

45
Q

Cobalt and B12

A

Cobalt contained by B12, usually hydroxycobalamin or cynocobalamin

46
Q

Where is B6 stored?

A

Exclusively in muscle tissue

47
Q

Sources of vitamin K

A

GI tract bacteria. Natural in foods.

48
Q

At risk for vitamin D deficiency

A

Darker skin, breastfeeding without supplementation, lack of sunlight, not drinking fortified milk

49
Q

What protein (and source) bind to biotin to prevent its absorption?

A

Avidin in raw egg white

50
Q

Niacin deficiency

A
4 Ds (Pellagra)
Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
51
Q

Leucine’ affect on tryptophan

A

Interferes with conversion of tryptophan into niacin

52
Q

Which B vitamins assist enzymes with energy release?

A

Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin (all coenzymes)

53
Q

B6 deficiency

A

Synthesis of key NTs diminishes. So abnormal compounds during tryptophan metabolism accumulate in the brain. Increase cancer and CVD. Depression, confusion, abnormal wave patterns, convulsions.

54
Q

Niacin toxicity

A

Dilates capillaries and causes painful tingling sensation (niacin flush)

55
Q

Choline

A

Essential. Used to make lecithin and ACh. Manufactured from methionine in body.

56
Q

Beriberi Dry

A

Affects nervous system. Characterized by muscle weakness in arms/legs (Thiamin deficiency)

57
Q

Function of vitamins

A

No energy yield, assist enzymes that participate in release of energy

58
Q

Nicotinamide

A

Major form of niacin in the blood

59
Q

Effects of folate deficiency

A

Neural tube defects, congenital birth defects, anemia

60
Q

Nonvitamins

A
Inositol
Carnitine
PABA
Bioflavonoids
Pyrroloquinoline quinone
Orotic and Lipoic Acid
Coenzyme Q10
B5 (Pantothenic acid)
B15 (Pangamic acid)
B 17 (laetrile)
61
Q

Natural vitamin K in foods

A

Phylloquinone

62
Q

Common cold and vitamin C

A

Slight but consistent shortening of cold duration. Deactivates histamine.

63
Q

Biotin

A

Critical in TCA cycle, gluconeogenisis, fatty acid synthesis, breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids

64
Q

Populations deficient in Thiamin

A

Malnourished and alcoholics

65
Q

Niacin chemical structures

A

Nicotinic acid

Nicotinamide

66
Q

Burning Feet Syndrome

A

Deficiency of pantothenic acid (symptoms?)

67
Q

GI produced vitamin K

A

Menaquinone (not enough for sustainability. Must supplement).

68
Q

Vitamin C deficiency

A

Gums bleeding around the teeth. Capillaries under skin break easily.

69
Q

Thiamin

A

Part of coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphatee (TPP). TPP assists in conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA (removes a C from pyruvate). Thiamin occupies site on nerve cell membrane (nerve and muscle-nerve response depend on it).

70
Q

Vitamin D

A

Calciferol. D2 from plant, D3 from animal. Fat soluble. Body synthesizes from sunlight or precursor from cholesterol

71
Q

B vitamins and energy

A

Helps body use macronutrients for fuel

72
Q

Cells affected by vitamin A

A

Epithelial, Goblet, sperm, normal fetal development, bone remodeling, antioxidant.

73
Q

Deficiency in vitamin A

A

Measles, night blindness/regular blindness, keratinization.

74
Q

Pantothenic acid’s role in TCA cycle

A

CoA cofactor that forms acetyl CoA

75
Q

Conversion of B6

A

All forms converted into coenzyme PLP (pyridoxal phosphate)

76
Q

Vitamin E

A

Helps to prevent chain reaction of free. Radicals. Fat soluble. Helps with heart disease and protection of LDLs

77
Q

Pantothenic Acid

A

B5. Part of Coenzyme A

78
Q

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

A

mental confusion, ataxia, opthaloplegia. Caused by Thiamin deficiency. Usually caused by alcoholism

79
Q

Role of PLP

A

Macronutrient metabolism
Can transfer NH2 group from AA to Keto acid
Conversion of tryptophan to niacin/serotonin
Synthesis of heme, nucleic acids, lecithin

80
Q

Vitamin K toxicity

A

High doses reduce effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs.

81
Q

Folate

A

Aka folacin or folic acid or PGA. Coenzyme for THF and DHF. Converts B12 to coenzyme form. Synthesizes DNA, Regenerates methionine from homocysteine

82
Q

Vitamin D roles in body

A

Active form is a hormone bc made in one area then carried to target organ.
Bone growth.
Enhances/suppresses gene activity
Protects against cognitive decline

83
Q

Nicotinic acid

A

Converted into nicotinamide by the body