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Flashcards in Vitamins And Minerals Deck (83)
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1

Vitamin D deficiency diseases

Rickets: bones fail to calcify normally
Calcium deficiency
Osteomalacia: poor mineralization of bones (adults)
Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium from bone

2

Biotin role in CA cycle

Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form OOA

3

Deficiency in riboflavin

Inflammation of thee membranes. Ariboflavinosis

4

Vitamin C intake

10 mg a day to prevent overt scurvy. 200 mg absorption maximum. Smoking increases need.

5

Vitamin E deficiency

Fat malabsorption (cystic fibrosis)
Hemolytic anemia
Neuromuscular dysfunction

6

Structure of vitamins

Individual units, not linked together

7

Damage to riboflavins

UV and radiation. Why milk is sold in opaque containers

8

Active form of vitamin C

Ascorbic acid (donates 2 hydrogens to become dehydroascorbic acid)

9

Retinol

Supports reproduction

10

What can the body use to make niacin?

Tryptophan. 60mg of tryptophan makes 1 mg of niacin. Only after protein synthesis needs are met

11

Retinal

Vision (from beta-carotene)

12

Deficiency in Biotin

Skin rash, hair loss, neurological impairment.

13

Vitamin B12

Activates folate. Maintains/protects nerve sheath fibers, bone cell activity and metabolism.

14

Ariboflavinosis

Sore throat, cracks/redness at corners of the mouth, painful, smooth, purplish red tongue. Inflammation by skin lesions covered with greasy scales

15

Difference between fat and water-solvable vitamins

Fat: require bile for digestion/absorption. Thru lymphatic system. Require proteins to transport in bloodstream. Stored in liver and adipose tissue. Can have toxicity due to limited excretion.

16

Coenzymes of niacin

NAD and NADP. Carries hydrogen and electrons. Protects against neurological degeneration

17

Provitamins

Inactive forms of vitamins that will be converted to active form in body (ex: beta carotene)

18

Which B vitamin assists with amino acid metabolism?

B6

19

Vitamin E toxicity

Liver regulates concentrations
RDA 15mg (Based on alpha-tocopherol only, UL is 1K mg)
Extremely high doses may interfere with vitamin K activity, causing hemorrhage

20

Riboflavin

Coenzyme for FMN and FAD (energy metabolism)

21

Required in conversion of glutamic acid to gamma carboxyglutamic acid

Vitamin K

22

Vitamin K

Primary action in blood clotting (prothrombin). Metabolism of bone proteins (osteocalcin/low bone density)

23

B6 antagonists

Alcohol and isoniazid (TB drug)

24

Stress and vitamin c

Adrenal glands release vitamin c and hormones into the blood

25

Bioavailability of folate

About 50-100% (more bioavailability for supplements, less for food)

26

Sources of riboflavin

Milk/dairy products**, whole grain, dark green veggies

27

B6 toxicity

Neurological damage. Only if >2g daily for 2 months or more

28

Which B vitamins help cells to multiply?

Folate and B12

29

Retinoic acids

Regulates growth

30

Folate disposal

Secretion by liver into bile. Enterohepatic circulation. GI tract hinders absorption