Flashcards in Vitamins And Minerals Deck (83)
Vitamin D deficiency diseases
Rickets: bones fail to calcify normally
Osteomalacia: poor mineralization of bones (adults)
Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium from bone
Biotin role in CA cycle
Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form OOA
Deficiency in riboflavin
Inflammation of thee membranes. Ariboflavinosis
Vitamin C intake
10 mg a day to prevent overt scurvy. 200 mg absorption maximum. Smoking increases need.
Vitamin E deficiency
Fat malabsorption (cystic fibrosis)
Structure of vitamins
Individual units, not linked together
Damage to riboflavins
UV and radiation. Why milk is sold in opaque containers
Active form of vitamin C
Ascorbic acid (donates 2 hydrogens to become dehydroascorbic acid)
What can the body use to make niacin?
Tryptophan. 60mg of tryptophan makes 1 mg of niacin. Only after protein synthesis needs are met
Vision (from beta-carotene)
Deficiency in Biotin
Skin rash, hair loss, neurological impairment.
Activates folate. Maintains/protects nerve sheath fibers, bone cell activity and metabolism.
Sore throat, cracks/redness at corners of the mouth, painful, smooth, purplish red tongue. Inflammation by skin lesions covered with greasy scales
Difference between fat and water-solvable vitamins
Fat: require bile for digestion/absorption. Thru lymphatic system. Require proteins to transport in bloodstream. Stored in liver and adipose tissue. Can have toxicity due to limited excretion.
Coenzymes of niacin
NAD and NADP. Carries hydrogen and electrons. Protects against neurological degeneration
Inactive forms of vitamins that will be converted to active form in body (ex: beta carotene)
Which B vitamin assists with amino acid metabolism?
Vitamin E toxicity
Liver regulates concentrations
RDA 15mg (Based on alpha-tocopherol only, UL is 1K mg)
Extremely high doses may interfere with vitamin K activity, causing hemorrhage
Coenzyme for FMN and FAD (energy metabolism)
Required in conversion of glutamic acid to gamma carboxyglutamic acid
Primary action in blood clotting (prothrombin). Metabolism of bone proteins (osteocalcin/low bone density)
Alcohol and isoniazid (TB drug)
Stress and vitamin c
Adrenal glands release vitamin c and hormones into the blood
Bioavailability of folate
About 50-100% (more bioavailability for supplements, less for food)
Sources of riboflavin
Milk/dairy products**, whole grain, dark green veggies
Neurological damage. Only if >2g daily for 2 months or more
Which B vitamins help cells to multiply?
Folate and B12