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Flashcards in Vitamins And Minerals Deck (83):
1

Vitamin D deficiency diseases

Rickets: bones fail to calcify normally
Calcium deficiency
Osteomalacia: poor mineralization of bones (adults)
Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium from bone

2

Biotin role in CA cycle

Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form OOA

3

Deficiency in riboflavin

Inflammation of thee membranes. Ariboflavinosis

4

Vitamin C intake

10 mg a day to prevent overt scurvy. 200 mg absorption maximum. Smoking increases need.

5

Vitamin E deficiency

Fat malabsorption (cystic fibrosis)
Hemolytic anemia
Neuromuscular dysfunction

6

Structure of vitamins

Individual units, not linked together

7

Damage to riboflavins

UV and radiation. Why milk is sold in opaque containers

8

Active form of vitamin C

Ascorbic acid (donates 2 hydrogens to become dehydroascorbic acid)

9

Retinol

Supports reproduction

10

What can the body use to make niacin?

Tryptophan. 60mg of tryptophan makes 1 mg of niacin. Only after protein synthesis needs are met

11

Retinal

Vision (from beta-carotene)

12

Deficiency in Biotin

Skin rash, hair loss, neurological impairment.

13

Vitamin B12

Activates folate. Maintains/protects nerve sheath fibers, bone cell activity and metabolism.

14

Ariboflavinosis

Sore throat, cracks/redness at corners of the mouth, painful, smooth, purplish red tongue. Inflammation by skin lesions covered with greasy scales

15

Difference between fat and water-solvable vitamins

Fat: require bile for digestion/absorption. Thru lymphatic system. Require proteins to transport in bloodstream. Stored in liver and adipose tissue. Can have toxicity due to limited excretion.

16

Coenzymes of niacin

NAD and NADP. Carries hydrogen and electrons. Protects against neurological degeneration

17

Provitamins

Inactive forms of vitamins that will be converted to active form in body (ex: beta carotene)

18

Which B vitamin assists with amino acid metabolism?

B6

19

Vitamin E toxicity

Liver regulates concentrations
RDA 15mg (Based on alpha-tocopherol only, UL is 1K mg)
Extremely high doses may interfere with vitamin K activity, causing hemorrhage

20

Riboflavin

Coenzyme for FMN and FAD (energy metabolism)

21

Required in conversion of glutamic acid to gamma carboxyglutamic acid

Vitamin K

22

Vitamin K

Primary action in blood clotting (prothrombin). Metabolism of bone proteins (osteocalcin/low bone density)

23

B6 antagonists

Alcohol and isoniazid (TB drug)

24

Stress and vitamin c

Adrenal glands release vitamin c and hormones into the blood

25

Bioavailability of folate

About 50-100% (more bioavailability for supplements, less for food)

26

Sources of riboflavin

Milk/dairy products**, whole grain, dark green veggies

27

B6 toxicity

Neurological damage. Only if >2g daily for 2 months or more

28

Which B vitamins help cells to multiply?

Folate and B12

29

Retinoic acids

Regulates growth

30

Folate disposal

Secretion by liver into bile. Enterohepatic circulation. GI tract hinders absorption

31

Conditions that respond to vitamin E Tx

Fibrocystic breast disease
Intermittent Claudicaion (leg cramping)

32

Beriberi Wet

Affects cardiovascular system. Characterized by dilated blood vessels, causing heart to work harder and kidneys to retain Na/H2O, resulting in edema (Thiamin deficiency)

33

Vitamin C as cofactor

Collagen formation (bone/tooth. Proline to hydroxyproline). Carnitine(hydroxylation). Tryptophan to serotonin. Tyrosine to norepinephrine. Making hormones (thyroxin*).

34

Activation of folate

GI adds methyl group so can be absorbed and delivered to cells. In cell, B12 activates folate (and activates B12). Now available for DNA synthesis

35

Forms of B6

Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine

36

Vitamin D activation

Precursor made from cholesterol via sunlight. Once D3 in system, activated in liver then kidneys. (2 hydroxylations)

37

3 forms of vitamin A

Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid. (Retinoids: animal source, best source* , Carotenoids: plant)

38

Vitamin C

Acts as an antioxidant. Defends against free radicals. Protects tissues from oxidative stress. Enhances iron absorption. Water soluble.

39

Choline Deficiency

Body order, sweating, salivation, reduced growth rate. Low BP.

40

Beta-carotene

Precursor for vitamin A

41

Vitamin D toxicity

Raises blood calcium concentrations. Forms stones in soft tissues. May harden blood vessels

42

Benefits of large nicotinic acid doses

Lower LDL, triglycerides, raise HDL

43

Vitamin A toxicity

Binding proteins are loaded. Bone defects. Birth defects-teratogen

44

Similarities of vitamins and energy-yielding nutrients

Essential, organic, available from foods

45

Cobalt and B12

Cobalt contained by B12, usually hydroxycobalamin or cynocobalamin

46

Where is B6 stored?

Exclusively in muscle tissue

47

Sources of vitamin K

GI tract bacteria. Natural in foods.

48

At risk for vitamin D deficiency

Darker skin, breastfeeding without supplementation, lack of sunlight, not drinking fortified milk

49

What protein (and source) bind to biotin to prevent its absorption?

Avidin in raw egg white

50

Niacin deficiency

4 Ds (Pellagra)
Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

51

Leucine' affect on tryptophan

Interferes with conversion of tryptophan into niacin

52

Which B vitamins assist enzymes with energy release?

Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin (all coenzymes)

53

B6 deficiency

Synthesis of key NTs diminishes. So abnormal compounds during tryptophan metabolism accumulate in the brain. Increase cancer and CVD. Depression, confusion, abnormal wave patterns, convulsions.

54

Niacin toxicity

Dilates capillaries and causes painful tingling sensation (niacin flush)

55

Choline

Essential. Used to make lecithin and ACh. Manufactured from methionine in body.

56

Beriberi Dry

Affects nervous system. Characterized by muscle weakness in arms/legs (Thiamin deficiency)

57

Function of vitamins

No energy yield, assist enzymes that participate in release of energy

58

Nicotinamide

Major form of niacin in the blood

59

Effects of folate deficiency

Neural tube defects, congenital birth defects, anemia

60

Nonvitamins

Inositol
Carnitine
PABA
Bioflavonoids
Pyrroloquinoline quinone
Orotic and Lipoic Acid
Coenzyme Q10
B5 (Pantothenic acid)
B15 (Pangamic acid)
B 17 (laetrile)

61

Natural vitamin K in foods

Phylloquinone

62

Common cold and vitamin C

Slight but consistent shortening of cold duration. Deactivates histamine.

63

Biotin

Critical in TCA cycle, gluconeogenisis, fatty acid synthesis, breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids

64

Populations deficient in Thiamin

Malnourished and alcoholics

65

Niacin chemical structures

Nicotinic acid
Nicotinamide

66

Burning Feet Syndrome

Deficiency of pantothenic acid (symptoms?)

67

GI produced vitamin K

Menaquinone (not enough for sustainability. Must supplement).

68

Vitamin C deficiency

Gums bleeding around the teeth. Capillaries under skin break easily.

69

Thiamin

Part of coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphatee (TPP). TPP assists in conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA (removes a C from pyruvate). Thiamin occupies site on nerve cell membrane (nerve and muscle-nerve response depend on it).

70

Vitamin D

Calciferol. D2 from plant, D3 from animal. Fat soluble. Body synthesizes from sunlight or precursor from cholesterol

71

B vitamins and energy

Helps body use macronutrients for fuel

72

Cells affected by vitamin A

Epithelial, Goblet, sperm, normal fetal development, bone remodeling, antioxidant.

73

Deficiency in vitamin A

Measles, night blindness/regular blindness, keratinization.

74

Pantothenic acid's role in TCA cycle

CoA cofactor that forms acetyl CoA

75

Conversion of B6

All forms converted into coenzyme PLP (pyridoxal phosphate)

76

Vitamin E

Helps to prevent chain reaction of free. Radicals. Fat soluble. Helps with heart disease and protection of LDLs

77

Pantothenic Acid

B5. Part of Coenzyme A

78

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

mental confusion, ataxia, opthaloplegia. Caused by Thiamin deficiency. Usually caused by alcoholism

79

Role of PLP

Macronutrient metabolism
Can transfer NH2 group from AA to Keto acid
Conversion of tryptophan to niacin/serotonin
Synthesis of heme, nucleic acids, lecithin

80

Vitamin K toxicity

High doses reduce effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs.

81

Folate

Aka folacin or folic acid or PGA. Coenzyme for THF and DHF. Converts B12 to coenzyme form. Synthesizes DNA, Regenerates methionine from homocysteine

82

Vitamin D roles in body

Active form is a hormone bc made in one area then carried to target organ.
Bone growth.
Enhances/suppresses gene activity
Protects against cognitive decline

83

Nicotinic acid

Converted into nicotinamide by the body