Micro 1 Final Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Micro 1 Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro 1 Final Deck (120):
1

Franciella tularensis
Morphology

G-R
Pleomorphic
Small

2

Franciella tularensis
AKA

Rabbit Fever
Hunter’s Disease
Market Fever

3

Franciella tularensis
Pathogenicity

Ulceroglandular: Direct contact on fingers=punched out lesion. Regional lymph swelling. Blood to liver to spleen (possibly lungs)

Pneumonic: Blood or inhalation. High mortality, spead person to person.

Typhoidal: Ingest contaminated food or water. GI disturbance and fever

4

Franciella tularensis
Tests

Smears from skin lesions- F.A. stain
Lung= sputum cultured
GI=gastric washing cultured

5

Franciella tularensis
Miscellaneous
Complications

Zoonosis
Via bare or broken skin
Fleas, ticks, rabbit lice
Inhalation of dust contaminated by rodents
Tulare CA 1912

6

Bacillus Anthracis
Morphology

G+R

7

Bacillus Anthracis
AKA

Wool sorter’s disease
Black Eschar
Charbon
Anthrax

8

Bacillus Anthracis
Pathogenicity

Has Protein Capsule
Typically acquired thru spores
3 Types based on portal of entry
1. Cutaneous (most common)
2. Respiratory
3. Intestinal
Black central crust=AKA

9

Bacillus Anthracis
Tests

none

10

Bacillus Anthracis
Miscellaneous
Complications

Occupational Disease
Sheep, Cattle
First pathogen to be seen under microscope
First bacterium proven to be cause of specific disease

11

Haemophilus influenza
Morphology

G-R
Small

12

Haemophilus influenza
AKA

Pfeiffer’s Bacillus

13

Haemophilus influenza
Pathogenicity

Rash=Meningitis
Inflammation of epiglottis
“X” Factor (heme) and “V” Factor (NID/ Coenzyme I)
Exhibits Satellism in presence of S. aureus

14

Haemophilus influenza
Tests

Neufeld-Quelling Test (Capsular Swelling)
Requires blood for growth

15

Haemophilus influenza
Complications

Opportunist-Secondary Invader
Blood Lover
B=Bad (6 kinds, A-F and B has capsule)

16

Haemophilus aegyptius
Morphology

G-R

17

Haemophilus aegyptius
AKA

H. conjunctivitis
Koch-weeks bacillus
H. influenza biotype III

18

Haemophilus aegyptius
Pathogenicity

Conjunctivitis= Pink eye
Like having sand in eye
Similar to Gonorrhea
Very Contagious

19

Haemophilus aegyptius
Tests

Resembles H. Influenza- cannot tell the difference on a smear

20

Haemophilus aegyptius
Complications

ALL Haemophilus like Blood (Hae=blood, phil=loving)

21

Haemophilus ducreyi
Morphology

G-R

22

Haemophilus ducreyi
AKA

none

23

Haemophilus ducreyi
Pathogenicity

Chancroid= soft chancre= STD, genital ulcer with swelling and pain
Buboes- enlarged lymph nodes
Transmitted thru Sexual Contact
Mostly males, asymptomatic in females

24

Haemophilus ducreyi
Tests

Blood agar plates w/I 10 minutes
Ducrey Skin Test

25

Haemophilus ducreyi
Complications

No Immunity
Remain postive for years
“do cry” b/c it’s an STD and painful
Syphillis has Chancre but it’s not painful
Similar

26

Boretella pertussis
Morphology

G-R
Small
Aerobic

27

Boretella pertussis
AKA

none

28

Boretella pertussis
Pathogenicity

Whooping Cough/Pertussis
4 virulence factors= Toxins it produces
3 stages manifested:
1. Catarrhal- 1-2 weeks upper respiratory infection, non-productive cough (no sputum)
2. Paroxsymal- few days to weeks. Repeated cough w/o inhale when finally able to inhale=whooping noise. Vomiting, clear stringy mucous. Hemorrhage/ convulsions. Staph or Haemo may invade
3. Convalescent- 2-4 wks. Occasional cough/whoop for year

29

Boretella pertussis
Tests

Bordet-Gengou Agar Plate (has potato)- pt cough straight onto plate b/c org. doesn’t like swabbing
DPT Vaccine
F.A. nasophary. smear

30

Boretella pertussis
Complications

Human respiratory tract
Spread by respiratory droplets
Mostly disease of Young

31

Legionella pneumophilia
Morphology

G-R
Aerobic

32

Legionella pneumophilia
Pathogenicity

Legionnarie’s diease=Pneumonia
Warm water- hot tub, vapur, mist, ac systems, water heater
Probably transmitted thru respiratory
Asymptomatic to Deadly
Disorientation

33

Legionella pneumophilia
Tests

Giminez Technique- infected lung tissue put into guinea pigs
Immunofluorescence provides rapid diagnostic test

34

Legionella pneumophilia
Complications

Immunosuppressed pts
Avoids our phagocytes=
smart guys
Found at veterans conference, everyone got sick b/c air system
Pontiac fever=same org. causes less severe illness (no pneumonia just flu)

35

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Morphology

G-R

36

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
AKA

Blue Pus

37

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pathogenicity

Wound + burn infections
Cystic fibrosis
In plants (so no plants in ICU or burn units can infect pts)
Nosocomial

38

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Complications

Targets immunosuppressed pts.
Very resistant: drugs, temp
Blue Pigment=Pyocyanin
Opportunistic

39

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Morphology

no cell wall

40

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
AKA

Eaton’s Agent

41

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Pathogenicity

Walking Pneumonia
Damages upper respiratory epithelium
Binds to cilia in Resp. Tract
Not very contagious
2-3 week duration

42

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Tests

Cold Agglutinins (antibodies- IGG)- clots RBC

43

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Complications

Smallest pathogen that can live outside of cell
Lack rigid cell wall
Mycoplasma=smallest free living self-replicating units
#1 cause of Bronchitis
Teens/young adults in late summer/ early fall

44

Rickettsia rickettsii
Morphology

G-Cocci/Rod
Pleomorphic

45

Rickettsia rickettsii
Pathogenicity

Rocking Mountain Spotted Fever
Maculopapular Rash (painful + breaks capillaries=proliferates endothelium)
VECTOR: TICKS

46

Rickettsia rickettsii
Tests

Weil-Felix Agglutination Reaction: persons serum + PROTEUS

47

Rickettsia rickettsii
Complications

Arthropod
Obligate Intracellular
Wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni)= Western US
Dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis)= Eastern US
Reservoir= mammal/bird
Spotted Fever Group

48

Rickettsia prowazeki
Morphology

G-Cocci/Rod
Pleomorphic

49

Rickettsia prowazeki
Pathogenicity

Epidemic typhus (louse-borne)
Growth in blood vessel endothelium and high temperatures
Macular rash on trunk, spreads to extremities
Death occurs by myocardial/ neurological problem w/i 2-3 weeks
Brills Disease/ Brill-Zinsser= pt had disease and is carrier. May reoccur in milder form w/o rash
VECTOR: LICE

50

Rickettsia prowazeki
Tests

Weil-Felix Agglutination Reaction: persons serum + PROTEUS

51

Rickettsia prowazeki
Complications

Arthropod
Obligate Intracellular
Substandard living conditions
Human body louse is the vector
Transmitted: feces, vomit, louse bite. Louse feces may be scratched into bite
Napolean’s Retreat
40-60% pts are over 60 yo
Mortality lowest in children
Hypotension
Oligera (some “O” word, no details in class)

52

Rickettsia typhi
Morphology

G-Cocci/Rod
Pleomorphic

53

Rickettsia typhi
Pathogenicity

Endemic typhus (murine typhus)= mild form of typhus
VECTOR: RAT FLEAS

54

Rickettsia typhi
Complications

Arthropod
Obligate Intracellular
Reservoir= rat the infection is not apparent + long lasting

55

Rickettsialpox
Morphology

G-Cocci/Rod
Pleomorphic

56

Rickettsialpox
Pathogenicity

Transmitted by Rickettsia akari
Reservoir=Mice
Vector=Mite (like dust mite)

57

Rickettsialpox
Complications

Mild disease with rash like varicella

58

Scrub typhus
Morphology

G-Cocci/Rod
Pleomorphic

59

Scrub typhus
Pathogenicity

Transmitted by R. tsutsugamushi
Reservoir= Rodents
Vector= Mite

60

Q Fever
Morphology

G-Cocci/Rod
Pleomorphic

61

Q Fever
Pathogenicity

Transmitted via Coxiella burnetti
Reservoir=Cattle, Sheep, Goats
Vector=None; inhalation of dust

62

Q Fever
Complications

Resembles influenza or nonbacterial pneumonia
Seen in cattle herds in California (stinkin librals)
*Forms Endospores

63

Chlamydia trachomatis-Immunotypes L1-L3
Pathogenicity

Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
3 stages:
1. Incubation 1-3 weeks, blisters on genitals, urethra + anal canal, shallow ulcer forms (painless + overlooked)
2. Weeks 2-4, invades *inguinal + pelvic lymph causing buboes, fever, aches, arthritic + conjunctival symptoms, may involve CNS
3. Urogenitoperineal syndrome, Elephantiasis of penis + scrotum in males, labia and clitoris in females, rectal stenosis, stricture

64

Chlamydia trachomatis-Immunotypes L1-L3
Tests

Frei Test: injection of killed organism into skin; delayed skin reaction develops if present (like Mantoux/ PPD); Delayed hypersensitivity test

65

Chlamydia trachomatis-Immunotypes L1-L3
Complications

STD
Tropical/Temperate zones

66

Chlamydia psittaci (pronounced sitachee)
Pathogenicity

Psittacosis/ Ornithosis (pneumonia)
Infect birds
Enters respirator tract from inhalation of infected, dried bird feces and infects lung tissues

67

Chlamydia psittaci (pronounced sitachee)
Tests

Isolated from blood, lung and sputum in fatal cases
Antibody tests

68

Chlamydia psittaci (pronounced sitachee)
Complications

Obligate Intracellular

69

Chlamydia trachomatis- trachoma strain
Pathogenicity

Ocular strain
Chronic inflammation of conjunctiva
Repeated re-infections causes eyelid to turn inward
May be transmitted to other parts of body so don’t touch eye

70

Chlamydia trachomatis- trachoma strain
Tests

Diagnosed on basis of pathologic findings
Flourescent antibodies
Must be grown not on agar

71

Chlamydia trachomatis- trachoma strain
Complications

Obligate Intracellular (Must have a host cell)
Smallest and most primitive of cellular organisms
Endemic to Middle East; in USA
Organism unable to synthesize their own ATP but do everything else on their own
`

72

Chlamydia trachomatis- I.C. Strain
Pathogenicity

Inclusion Conjunctivitis, Venereal infections and Infant Pneumonitis
Venereal: Most common cause of Nongonocccal urethritis (NGU) in men, cervical infection, fallopian tube infection/ sterility in women, major etiological agent in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)-women
Infant: Infected at birth from birth canal, develop otitis media (middle ear) infection with same organism
Inclusion: babies born to infected mothers have mild eye infections, adults transmit thru fingers and towels and manifest acutely

73

Chlamydia trachomatis- I.C. Strain
Tests

Tear Antibody (use patients tears)
Giemsa stain
Immunoflourescence
Culture

74

Chlamydia trachomatis- I.C. Strain
Complications

Most prevalent STD Strain

75

Chlamydia trachomatis- I.C. Strain
AKA

TRIC= Trachoma- Inclusion Conjunctivitis

76

Treponema pallidum
Morphlogy

G-Spirochete (axial filament, peritrichous flagella)

77

Treponema pallidum
AKA

The Great Imitator

78

Treponema pallidum
Pathogenicity

Syphilis
4 stages:
1. Primary- Papule (hard chancre), w/I 3 weeks
2. Secondary- Lesions of mucous membranes, CNS, eye or bones; spirochetes isolated from lesions
3. Latent- 2/3 resolve, 1/3 go to tertiary
4. Tertiary- 3-30 years, gumma (granulomatous lesion) appears on body (heart, lungs, brain, anywhere)

79

Treponema pallidum
Tests

Darkfield Microscopy
FTA (Flourescent antibody)
Wasserman
Kahn
Kline
Kolmer
C.F.
V.D.R.L.

80

Treponema pallidum
Complications

Organism present in lesion
Transmitted thru sexual contact, less commonly congenital
Immunity NOT conferred following infection

81

Treponema pallidum- variety endemic syphilis
Morphlogy

G-Spriochete

82

Treponema pallidum- variety endemic syphilis
Pathogenicity

Bejel- Endemicum, Non-Venereal childhood Syphillis
Oral mucosa manifests initial lesions, spreads to skin, bone, nasopharynx as gummata

83

Treponema pallidum- variety endemic syphilis
Complications

Person to person thru drinking + eating utinsils

84

Treponema pertenue
Morphlogy

G-Spriochete

85

Treponema pertenue
Pathogenicity

Yaws- affects jaws
Causes face disfigurement- once confused with leprosy

86

Treponema pertenue
Complications

Spread via open ulcers or by vectors such as flies

87

Treponema carateum
Morphlogy

G-Spriochete

88

Treponema carateum
Pathogenicity

Pinta- Red or flue flat areas
After long period of time de-pigmentation occurs

89

Treponema carateum
Complications

Spread via direct person to person contact

90

Treponema vincentii (Borrelia)
+
Bacteroides melaninogenicus
Morphology

G-Spirochete
+
G-Fusiform Rod

91

Treponema vincentii (Borrelia)
+
Bacteroides melaninogenicus
AKA

Vincent’s angina
Fusospirochetal disease
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

92

Treponema vincentii (Borrelia)
+
Bacteroides melaninogenicus
Pathogenicity

Trench Mouth- ulceration of the gums
Vincent’s angina/ fusospirochetal- ulceration of throat and tonsils
Foul oral smell of death*

93

Treponema vincentii (Borrelia)
+
Bacteroides melaninogenicus
Miscellaneous/ Complications

Normal inhabitants of oral cavity
Secondary invadors of an initial lesion
Sometimes has pseudomembrane formation
Must be together to cause problem

94

Borrelia recurrentis
Morphology

Spirochete- largest of pathogenic

95

Borrelia recurrentis
AKA

Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever

96

Borrelia recurrentis
Pathogenicity

Epidemic Relapsing Fever
Tenderness of spleen
Jaundice
Fever and Chills due to excessive spriochetes in blood

97

Borrelia recurrentis
Miscellaneous/ Complications

Cosmopolitan
Only species transmitted Human to Human via body louse

98

Borrelia duttonii
Morphology

Spirochete

99

Borrelia duttonii
AKA

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever

100

Borrelia duttonii
Pathogenicity

Endemic Relapsing Fever
Similar to above

101

Borrelia duttonii
Miscellaneous/ Complications

Transovarial (transmitted to tick offspring)

102

Borrelia burgdorferi
AKA

Lyme Borreliosis

103

Borrelia burgdorferi
Pathogenicity

Lyme Disease
Spreads thru blood to organs like heart, joints and CNS
Target or bulls eye at site of bite
Rash called Erythema Chronicum Migrans
3 stages:
1. Painless rash (ECM)
2. Cardiac + Neurologic involvement, acute (aseptic) meningitis, cranial neuropathies=** 7th nerve palsy (Bell’s Palsy)

104

Borrelia burgdorferi
Tests

Detect IgM and rising IgG antibody by the ELISA or Immunofluoresence test
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Western Blot Analyses

105

Borrelia burgdorferi
Miscellaneous/ Complications

Early Detection is key before it attacks heart
Acute (Aseptic) not bacterial and doesn’t grow on agar

Symptoms also include stiff neck, fever, headache, backache, arthritis, cardiac + neurological problems

106

Leptospira interrogans
Morphology

Spirochete

107

Leptospira interrogans
AKA

Weil’s Disease
Infectious Jaundice
Black Vomit

108

Leptospira interrogans
Pathogenicity

Hemorrhage of the skin
Multiplies in blood and infects liver, kidney, lungs, meninges and conjunctiva

109

Leptospira interrogans
Tests

Spirochete detection in blood and urine
Antibodies in 1 week Agglutination test

110

Leptospira interrogans
Miscellaneous/ Complications

Rare in US

111

Salmonella Food Poisoning

Infection, 2nd most common form of food poisoning

112

Staphylococcus Food Poisoning

Intoxication, Enterotoxin (exotoxin) is heat stable

113

Clostridium Botulinum

Food Poisoning: Intoxication, Toxin is heat labile (boiling inactivates toxin)

114

Listeria monocytogenes

soft cheeses, raw milk; spontaneous abortion, stillbirth meningitis septicemia, GI symptoms may precede

115

Yersinia enterocolitica

unpasteurized dairy products; abdominal pain in lower right quadrant, fever, diarrhea (mistaken for appendicitis)

116

Water is checked for E.Coli b/c

means fecal matter is present

Other organisms could be present typhoid bacillus, hepatitis virus, polio virus, desentary bacilli, amoebic dysentery; E.coli is easiest to test for

117

Classical test

Coliform Test

118

Coliform Test
3 steps
Step 1

1. presumptive: lactose containing broth has durham tube and phenol red for pH indicator

119

Coliform Test
3 steps
Step 2

2. Confirmed: Lactose culture (+ yellow), acid, gas (durham tube); metallic green colonies bc pH drops= E. coli; purple, mucoid colonies= Enterobacter aerogenes

120

Coliform Test
3 steps
Step 3

3. Completed: re-inoculate into lactose broth as in presumptive and test again to make sure