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Flashcards in micro 2 Deck (229):
1

Elie Metchnikoff

1st to observe phagocytes
father of immunology

2

Innate (nonspecific) immunity
Anatomical barriers
mechanical

1.Skin
2.Mucous membranes----saliva/mucus/urine

3

Innate (nonspecific) immunity
Anatomical barriers
chemical

1.skin
2.mucous membranes (Lysozyme and phospholipase A of tears and saliva)

4

Innate (nonspecific) immunity
Anatomical barriers
biological factors

1. skin and mucous membranes (antimicrobial substances, etc)

5

Innate (nonspecific) immunity
Humoral components

1. Complement
2. coagulation system
3. lactoferrin and transferrin
4. lysozyme
5. cytokines

6

neutrophils
kill by

phagocytocis
intracellular killing
(cause inflamation and tissue damage)

7

Innate (nonspecific) immunity
cellular components

1.neutrophils
2.monocytes/microphages
3. NK and LAK cells
4. Eosinophils

8

Humoral components
complement

lysis of bacteria
increase in vascular permeability
recruitment of phagocytic cells

9

Humoral components
coagulation system

increase vascular permeability
recruitment of phagocytes
B-lysin from platelets

10

B-lysin

a cationic detergent

11

Humoral components
lactoferrin and tranferrin

compete with bacteria for iron

12

Humoral components
lysozyme

breaks down bacterial cell wall

13

Humoral components
cytokines

various effects

14

monocytes and microphages
kill by

phagocytosis and intracellular killing
extracellular killing of infected or altered self targets

15

monocytes and microphages
special

antigen presentation for specific immune response

16

NK cells and LAK cells
do what

kill virus infected and altered self targets

17

eosinophils
do what

kill certain parasites

18

Acquired immuity (specific)

react with a specific pathogen, discrete determinates

19

Acquired immuity (specific)
2 kinds

cell-mediated immunity
humoral immunity (Ab)

20

Acquired immuity (specific)
hallmarks

self/non-self discrimination
memory
specificity
diversity

21

Primary lymphoid organs

bone marrow
thymus

FETAL LIVER

22

secondary lymph organs

Spleen
lymph nodes
tonsils
MALT

23

humoral root

fluid contained

24

blood cells

RBC
Platelets
WBC

25

WBCs include

1.monocytes/macrophages
2.Polymorphonuclear granulocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils
3.Lymphocytes
NK cells
T cells
B cells

26

NK cells are what % of WBC

15

27

Lymphocytes are what % of WBC

20

28

Neutrophils are what % of PMN

95

29

monocyte lysosomes contain

peroxidase
acid hydrolases

30

monocytes become

tissue macrophages

31

neutrophils primary granules contain

lysosomes with acid anhydrolases, myeloperoxidase,
muramidase

32

neutrophils secondary granules contain

lactoferrin
lysozyme

33

eosinophils are what % of WBC

2-5

34

eosinophils do what upon stimulation

degranulate,
release histamine, and
aryl sulphatase

35

basophils are what % of WBCs

<.2

36

basophils are similar to

mast cells in tissue involved in allergic response

37

large lymphocytes

NK cells

38

small lymphocytes

T cells
B cells

39

NK cells are part of

cell mediated immunity
(innate immune response)

40

do Nk cells require prior activation

no

41

What molecules do NK cells attack specifically?

MHC class I molecules

42

T and B cells are principal cells involved in what

adaptive immune system

43

Do T and B cells retain a memory of previous infection?

yes

44

B cells are primarily responsible for

humoral immunity

45

B cells mature in

bone marrow

46

B cells differentiate into

plasma cells

47

T cells are primarily responsible for

cell mediated immunity

48

T cells mature in the

thymus

49

T cells begin in the

Bone marrow

50

when T cells are activated they secrete

specific proteins

51

when T cells are activated they secrete specifically

cytokines
cytotoxic granules

helper (CD4)
cytotoxic (CD8)

52

Antigen presenting cells

microphages
dendritic cells
B cells

53

immunogen

ability to induce a humoral and/or cell mediated response

54

antigen(Ag)

ability to specifically bind to an antibody or cell mediated receptor

55

Haptens

incomplete antigens

need a large carrier such as Hapten-carrier conjugate

56

Adjuvant

agents which modify the effect of other agents
(few direct effects)

57

Epitopes

antigenic determinants
specific active regions for lymphocyte antigen receptors and antibodies

58

Allergin

substance that causes an allergic reaction

59

Factors influencing immunogenicity

1. contribution of the immunogen
2. contribution of the biological system
3. method of administration
4. chemical nature of immunogens

60

contribution of immunogen

1. foriegness
2. size >6000 MW
3. Chem composition
4. physical form
5. degradability (Ag processing by Ag Presenting cells)

61

contribution of biological system

1. genetics
2. Age

62

method of administration

1. dose
2. route
3. adjuvant

63

method of administration
dose

subcutaneous>intravenous>intragastric

64

method of administration
adjuvant

substances that enhance an immunogen response to an Ag

65

Chemical nature of immunogens

proteins
polysacchirides
nucleic acids
lipids

66

Antibody

gamma globulins that are produced by plasma cells in response to stimulation by foriegn antigen

67

gamma globulins

immunoglobulins
glycoproteinmolecules

68

antibodies are aquired through

natural infection and recovery
transplacental (only class Ig G)
breast milk feeding for secretory Ig A (sIg A)
vaccine immunization
recieving antibodies

69

Structure and function of antibody
Y config

heavy chain
light chain
disulfide bond
contains FAB AND FC REGION

70

what is Fab

site of antigen binding

71

variation in Fab allows

a wide range of specific activity
(recognition of many antigens)

72

Fc is what

constant part of the Ab molecules

73

functions of Fc

complement activation
attraction of inflammatory cells
opsonization

74

what is opsonization

phagocytosis by macrophages with the assistance of antibodies and complement

75

do macrophages have receptors for Fc molecules

yes

76

what enhances macrophages opsonizational activity

Fc and complements

77

how do antibodies digest

by papain and pepsin
different fragments

78

5 classes of antibodies

1. Ig G
2. Ig A
3. Ig M
4. Ig D
5. Ig E

79

most abundant antibody

Ig G

80

smallest antibody

Ig G

81

Ig A
two types

serum type
secretory type

82

4th highest concentration antibody

Ig D

83

binds to basophils and mast cells

Ig E

84

antibody in secretory mucosomembrane, tears, mouth

sIg A

85

3rd highest concentration antibody

Ig M

86

transplacental antibody
first few weeks of birth

Ig G

87

antibody associated with parasitic infections

Ig E

88

agglutinins

combine with Ag to cause agglutination
WIDAL TEST for TYPHOID FEVER

89

preciptins

combine with a soluble Ag to form a preciptiation complex
OUCHTERLONY PRECIPTIN TEST

90

lysins

Ab that will lyse particulate Ag
usually needs the prescence of a complement to complete this reaction

91

antitoxin

soluble Ab that neutralizes toxins
TETANUS TOXIN
DIPTHERIA TOXIN
BOTULISM TOXIN

92

Ag-Ab reaction
affinity

strength of the reaction between a single antigenic determinant and a single Ab combining site

93

Ag-Ab reaction
Avidity

overall strength of binding between an Ag with many determinats and multivalent Abs

94

Ag-Ab reaction
specificity

ability of an individual antibody combining site to react with oly one antigenic determinant & the ability of a population of antibody molecules to react with only one antigen

95

Ag-Ab reaction
cross reactivity

ability of an individual Ab combinig site to react with more than one antigenic determinant & the ability of a population of Ab molecules to react with more than one Ag

96

Hemocytoblasts

stem cells of bone marrow

97

hemocytoblasts origin

embryonic liver and embryonic yolk sac

98

T lymphocyte development

bone marrow----thymus----peripheral lymphatic tissue

99

T cells chief responsibility

cell mediated immunity

100

T cells action in humoral immunity

antigen presenting process

101

Cytotoxic T cells AKA

CD-8

102

Cytotoxic T cells appear _____ and release _____

early and granules

103

T- helper subscripts

CD4, T4, Th

104

T-helper action

interact with Ag before B cells
stimulates activity of CD8

***helps B cells synthesize Ab by secrection of interleukin

105

Suppressor T cells action

dampen the activity of B and T lymphocytes
inhibits immune response---autoimmunity

106

B lymphocytes development

origin in Bone Marrow from hematopoiesis--- enter circulation and got to peripheral lymph organs

107

B cells (upon stimulation)

differentiate and form effector plasma cells and memory cells

108

B cells mainly involved in

humoral immunity

109

immunoglobins AKA

Ab

110

Six participants involved in B cell conversion to plasma cells (namely Ab-forming cell)

1. Microphage
2. CD4 lymphocyte
3. Exogenous antigen
4. MHC CLASS 2
5. Cytokine
6. B cells

111

MHC

Major Histocompatibility Complex

112

MHC definition

set of molecules displayed on cell surfaces responsible for lymphocyte recognition and antigen presentation

*****control the immune response through recognition of "self" and "non-self"

113

MHC chromosome location

Chromosome 6

114

MHC classes

1,2,3

115

MHC class 1

expressed on virtually every cell

****presents endogenous peptide antigens to Tc cells

116

MHC class 2

primarily on Antigen presenting cells


****present processed exogenous peptides to Th cells

117

MHC class 3

various secreted protiens that have immune functions

118

APC

Antigen presenting cells

119

APC found where

skin
lymph nodes
spleen
underneath mucosal epithelium
thymus

120

APCs include

dendritic cells
follicular dendritic cells
interdigitating dendritic cells
B cells
macrophages

121

Definition of Atigen processing and presentation

processing-protein antigen degraded into peptides

presentation-peptide-MHC complex transported to cell membrane and displayed

122

Endogenous Ag bind to

MHC class 1

123

Endogenous Ag are processed within

cytoplasm

124

Endogenous Ag examples

cellular proteins
tumor proteins
viral and bacterial proteins

125

Exogenous Ag bind to

MHC class 2

126

Exogenous Ag internalized by

phagocytosis or endocytosis

127

Exogenous Ag processed within

endocytic pathway

128

TCR means

T cell receptor molecule

129

TCR structurally similar to

BCR

130

TCR provides

specificity for an individual T cell to recognize a particular Ag

131

Why is the TCR "MHC restricted?"

because the TCR is required to interact with MHC

132

CD4 interacts with

MHC class 2

133

CD8 interacts with

MHC class 1

134

interactions between the CD4 and CD8 with their repective MHC acts to

stabilize and consummate the antigen recognition process

*****this allows helper T-cells to respond to "exogenous" antigens (leading to B-cell production of antibody)

****also alows Cytotoxic T-cells (CD8) to respond to "endogenous" antigens leading to target cell distruction

135

Where does antigen dependent stages of B-cell differtiation begin?

secondary lymph organs

136

Ab have what 3 main functions

neutralization
opsonization
complement activation

137

B-cells differentiate into what 2 types of cells

plasma
memory

138

immune memory AKA

anamnestic response

139

Is a lag phase present in the secondary immune response?

no

140

Why is IgM response limited?

They use to much protien and energy to keep on

141

Cell-mediated immunity is especially important for

destroying intracellular bacteria
eliminating viral infection
destroying tumor cells

142

what are the effector cells involved in CMI

cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs)
NK
K cells

143

CTLs are restricted in what way?

antigen
MHC

144

CTLs require

specific antigen determinant
recognition of self MHC

145

CTLs principally eliminate

endogenous antigens

146

CTLs recognize

specific antigens
MHC class 1

147

CTLs express

CD8

148

NK cells AKA

large granular lymphocytes

149

NK cells are primarily involved in

elimination of neoplastic or tumor cells

150

K cells contain

immunoglobin Fc receptors

151

K cells are involved in

ADCC (antibody-dependant Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity)

152

ADCC occurs as a consequence

of antibody being bound to a target cell surface via specfic antigenic determinants expressed by the target cell

153

ADCC can result in

CMIR type 2 hypersensitivities

154

the complement system in mammal blood is composed of

26 protiens

155

The compliment proteins combine with

antibodies or cell surfaces

156

complements are numbered or refered to as

factors

157

Do complements have to be activated?

yes

158

What 2 pathways activate complements

classical
alternate

159

What happens after a complement is activated?

complement cascade

160

what are the functions of the comlement cascade?

opsonization
clearance of the immune complex
inflammation
MAC----membrane attack complex

161

Inflammation during the complement cascade produces and this provides

chemotactic substances (C3a, C5a)

****increased vascular permeability; causing smooth muscle contraction and promotin mast cell degranulation

162

Classical pathway of complement activiation

immune complex initiation, from C1 to C9

163

Alternate pathway activation of complement

carbohydrates on bacterial surface

164

Does most phagocytic binding occur without opsonization?

no

165

Pagocytic cells express receptors that bind what molecules

opsonin including Fc receptors

166

Vaccine

usually killed or attenuated bacteria, virus, or attenuated toxin

167

Booster injections

additional inoculations introduced to ****increase immune response, causing quicker anamnestic response

168

attenuated

rendered incapable of causing disease, but capable of inducing immunity

169

Titer

concentration

170

Different modes of aquiring immunity

Natural
artificial
active
passive

171

natural aquired immunity

naturally exposed to pathogen

172

artificial aquired immunity

oral intake (or injection) of attenuated organism

173

active aquired immunity

host makes own antibodies

174

passive acquired antibodies

recieve antibodies from others (or animal serum)

175

4 types of immunization

natural aquired active immunity
artificial active immunity
artificial passive aquired immunity
natural aquired passive immunity

176

natural aquired active immunity

Ab formation is stimulated by the presence

177

natural aquired active immunity
length of immunity

may be lifelong

178

artificial active immunity

Ag composed of attenuated microorganism or detoxified product administered to the host which stimulates Ab. production

179

artificial active immunity
example and length of immunity

flu shot
long term

180

artificial passive aquired immunity

confeerd by injection of serum from an immune animal, or human being, to a susceptible individual

181

artificial passive aquired immunity
example and length of immnity

Antitoxin of tetanus
short term

182

natural aquired passive immunity

Ab aquired in utero while the baby is in the womb, and later while the baby is nuresing on mother's breast

183

natural aquired passive immunity
example and length of immunity

Ab in uterus and breast milk
short term

184

Hypersensitivity

undesirable overreactions produced by the normal immune system to certain allergens

185

Hypersensitivity reactions require

a pre sensitized (immune state) of the host

186

Desensitization AKA

allergy shots

187

allergy shots work by

turning down immune response to the allergen
less Ig E
more Ig G

188

4 types of Hypersensitivity
Type 1

Ig E mediated immediate AKA anphylactic

189

Type 1 hypersensitivity involves

mast cells and basophiles

190

Type 1 hypersensitivity
2 types

Localized anaphylaxis
systemic analphylaxis

191

systemic analphylaxis

worst case scenario of hypersensitivity

smooth muscle contraction---causing life threatining respitory distress

192

systemic analphylaxis
immediate treatment

epinephrine injection

193

Type 2 hypersensitivity

Antibody dependent cytotoxicity
Ig G or Ig M

194

Type 2 hypersensitivity
what happens

complement enhances cytotoxicity

195

Type 2 hypersensitivity
examples

autoimmune hemolytic anemia
tranfusion reactions
goodpasture's syndrome
graves' disease

196

Type 3 hypersensitivity

immune complex
Ig G or Ig M-mediated immune complex hypersensitivity

197

Type 3 hypersensitivity
AKA

arthus reaction and serum sickness

198

Type 3 hypersensitivity
example

rheumatic fever (strep infection)
immune complex glomerulonephritis
subacute bacterial endocarditits
systemic lupus erythematosus

199

Type 4 hypersensitivity

cytotoxic T cell CD8-mediated immune response AKA delayed

200

Type 4 hypersensitivity
Ab role

none

201

Type 4 hypersensitivity
example

tuberculosis
poision ivy
skin test
fungal disease

202

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
Major method of regulation

a balance of T helper and T supressor activities

202

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
Major method of regulation

a balance of T helper and T supressor activities

203

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
Suppressor T-cell release what?

factors that suppress the B-cell response

203

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
Suppressor T-cell release what?

factors that suppress the B-cell response

204

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
suppressor T-cells don't release what?

lymphokines

204

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
suppressor T-cells don't release what?

lymphokines

205

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
what does a disturbance in the balance cause?

immunodeficiancy syndromes
(state of unresponsiveness is created)
lack of helper
or excess of suppressor activity

205

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
what does a disturbance in the balance cause?

immunodeficiancy syndromes
(state of unresponsiveness is created)
lack of helper
or excess of suppressor activity

206

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
autoimmunity caused

excess helper
or reduced suppressor activity

206

Regulation of the Immune response
Immunodeficiency & autoimmunity
autoimmunity caused

excess helper
or reduced suppressor activity

207

Tissue/organ transplantation
Autografting

tissue moved from one location to another

207

Tissue/organ transplantation
Autografting

tissue moved from one location to another

208

Tissue/organ transplantation
synergenic graft

isografting; transplant from identical twins

208

Tissue/organ transplantation
synergenic graft

isografting; transplant from identical twins

209

Tissue/organ transplantation
allografting

homografting; transplant from geneticall different members of the same species

209

Tissue/organ transplantation
allografting

homografting; transplant from geneticall different members of the same species

210

Tissue/organ transplantation
xenografting

from different species

210

Tissue/organ transplantation
xenografting

from different species

211

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
hyperacute

in minutes to hours, because of preformed antidoner Ab and complement

211

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
hyperacute

in minutes to hours, because of preformed antidoner Ab and complement

212

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
accelerated

in days; reactivation to sensitized T cells

212

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
accelerated

in days; reactivation to sensitized T cells

213

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
acute

days to weeks, primary activation of T-cells

213

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
acute

days to weeks, primary activation of T-cells

214

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
chronic

months to years; causes not clear, may be Ab and CMI

214

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
chronic

months to years; causes not clear, may be Ab and CMI

215

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
graft-versus-host rejection

especially found in bone marrow transplantation, grafted T-cells attack host; symptoms include rash, jaundice, diarrhea, GI hemorrhage

215

Tissue/organ transplantation
rejection
graft-versus-host rejection

especially found in bone marrow transplantation, grafted T-cells attack host; symptoms include rash, jaundice, diarrhea, GI hemorrhage