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Flashcards in glycolysis ivanov Deck (55):
1

shuttles

Glycerol-3-P
Malate

2

Glycerol-3-P
1 NADH will produce ? ATP

1.5

3

Malate
1 NADH will produce ? ATP

2.5

4

G-3-P
produces how many ATP total?

30

5

Malate produces how many ATP total?

32

6

enzymes of the investment phase

hexokinase
phosphoglucose isomerase
phosphofructosekinase
aldolase
triose phosphate isomerase

7

molecules produced during investment phase

d-glucose---start
1.glucose 6-phosphate
2.fructose 6-phosphate
3.fructose 1,6-biphosphate
4.glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

dihydroxyacetone phosphate

8

what happens to the fructose 1,3-biphosphate?

it goes through an aldol cleavage producing glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dihydroxyacetone phosphate

9

what enzymes accompany the ATP investments?

hexokinase
phoshofructokinase

10

what cells have no mitochondria?

RBC

11

What does aerobic glycolysis depend on?

Pa O2
number of mitochondria

12

NADH is

and electron carrier

13

What are the net products of glycolysis?

2 pyruvate
2 NADH
2 ATP

14

Anaerobic glycolysis is dependent on what enzyme?

lactate dehydrogenase

15

Anaerobic glycolysis produces what molecule?

Lactate

16

What are the enzymes of the generation phase?

1. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
2. phoshoglycerate kinase
3. phoshoglycero-mutase
4. enolase
5. pyruvate kinase

17

glycolysis occurs where

cytosol

18

What is the pace setting enzyme for glycolysis?

phosphofructokinase

19

what inhibits phosphofructokinase

ATP
citrate

20

what is the substrate used by phosphofructokinase?

fructose 6-phosphate

21

vigorously contracting muscles show an increase in what reaction

conversion of pyruvate to lactate

22

If a pt showed very low lactate conversion after working out, what enzyme would be deficient

pyruvate kinase

23

which reactions in glycolysis are irreversable?

the rate limiting reactions

24

what is the oxif=dized product of NADH?

NAD+

25

will a fasting state speed up or slow down glycolysis, why?

a fasting state will slow down glycolysis due to the inhibition of phosphofructokinase. The enzyme is a rate determining enzyme and decreased levels of fructose 2, 6-biphosphate cause inhibition.

26

Fructose 2,6 phosphate is activated by

insulin

27

what are the products of the generation phase of glycolysis?

4 ATP
2 NADH
2 pyruvate

28

what enzyme is reponsible for the phosphorylation of glucose

hexokinase

29

what inhibits hexokinase

glucose 6-phosphate

30

hexokinase has a high affinity for

glucose

31

where is glucokinase found

liver parenchymal cells
islet cells of the pancreas

32

how does glucokinase differ from hexokinase

1.glucokinase only functions when the intracellular concentration of glucose in the hepatocyte is elevated
(helpful when eating a carb rich meal)
2. indirectly inhibited by fructose 6-phosphate

3. its activity is increased due to the activity of insulin

33

What is the reaction following the phosphorylation of glucose?

glucose 6-phosphate is isomerized to fructose 6-phosphate

34

what is the catalyst of this reaction

phosphoglucose isomerase

35

What reaction happens to fructose 6-phosphate?

irreversable phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-biphosphate

36

what regulates this reaction?

1.activated by increased concentration of fructose 2,6-biphosphate (most potent activator)
2.inhibited by increased ATP, Citrate
3. activated by high AMP

37

What is the catalyst of this reaction?

phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)

38

ATP is required investment during what reactions?

1. glucose to glucose 6-phosphate
2. fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-biphosphate

39

What happens during the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphospahte?

aldolase cleaves fructose 1,6-biphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phospahte

40

is this reaction reversable?

yes

41

What does triose phosphate isomerase do?

interconverts dihydroxyacetone phoshate and glyceraldehyde 3 -phosphate

42

what happens to dihydroxyacetone phosphate?

it is isomerized to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate for further metabolism in the glycolytic pathway

43

what happens to the 2 molecules of glycrealdehyde 3-phosphate

they are oxidized to 1,3-biphosphoglycerate

44

what is the catalyst for this reaction

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

45

What also happens during this reaction in glycolysis?

NAD+ is rduced to produce NADH + H+

46

What happens to 1,3 BPG?

it is conveted to 3-phosphoglycerate
(the high energy phosphate group is used to synthesize ATP from ADP

47

What is this reaction catalyzed by?

phosphoglycerate kinase

48

3-phosphoglycerate is then

shifted the phosphate group from carbon 3 to carbon 2 by the catalyst phosphoglycerate mutase

49

what happens to 2-phosphoglycerate

it is dehydrated by enolase
this results in the formation of a high energy enol phosphate contained in the PEP molecule

50

What happens to the PEP molecule?

PEP is converted to pyruvate by the enzyme pyruvate kinase
last irreversable reaction of glycolysis
produces ATP

51

What activates pyruvate kinase

elevated levels of fructose 1,6-biphosphate

52

T or F
The rate limiting reactions of glycolysis are irreversable.

T

53

Which reaction is the regulated reaction of the glycolytic pathway?

Fructose 6 phosphosphate----->fructose 1,6 biphosphate

PFK-1

54

What would cause an increase in conversion of pyruvate to lactate?

vigourously contracting muscles

55

Red blood cells isolated from a patient showed abnormally low level of lactate production, which enzyme of glycolysis is deficient?

pyruvate kinase