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Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (122)
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1
Q

11 Organ Systems

A
  • Integumentary
  • Endocrine
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiovascular
  • Nervous
  • Urinary
  • Muscular
  • Respiratory
  • Reproductive
  • Lymphatic
  • Digestive
2
Q

Head anatomical regions

A
  • cephalic
  • Cranial
  • Otic
  • Facial
  • Frontal
  • Orbital
  • Nasal
  • Buccal
  • Oral
  • Mental
  • cervical
3
Q

Abdominopelvic regions (9)

A

-Right hyphochondriac || epigastric || Left hypochondriac
-Right limbar || unbillical || Left lumbar
Right inguinal || hypogastric || Left inguinal

4
Q

Anatomical Directions

A

Cranial, Caudal, Anterior (Ventral), Posterior (dorsal), Lateral, Medial, Proximal, Distal

5
Q

Anatomical Sections

A
  • Cross

- Longitudinal

6
Q

Anatomical Planes

A

Frontal
Transverse
Saggital

7
Q

Body Cavities- Main 12

A
Cranial
Dorsal body
Ventral body
Spinal
Pelvic
Abdominal
Diaphram
Pericardial
Pleural
Mediastinum
Thoracic
Abdominopelvic
8
Q

Visceral cavity

A

Deeper layer;

Present in both Pleural and Pericardial Cavities

9
Q

Parietal cavity

A

Outer, toward surface layer:

Present in the both the Pleural and Pericardial Cavities

10
Q

Serous membranes are

A

membranes that line body cavities and organs, form a two-layered, transparent film that is lubricated. Allowing movement

11
Q

Name the serous membranes

A

Peritoneum
Pericardium
Pleura

12
Q

Anatomy vs Physiology vs morphology

A

Structure (where, what it looks like) vs Function vs how its shape determines its function

13
Q

Anatomy substudies

A

Microscopic: cytology (cells) and histology (tissues)

Macroscopic (gross): Surface, regional, systematic*(most common), developmental, and comparative

Pathological (caused by disease), radiological (as seen in xray)

14
Q

Hierarchy of structural organization

A

atom> molecule> cellular> tissue> organ> organ system> organism

15
Q

cranial

A

towards head

16
Q

caudal

A

towards tail

17
Q

toward front

A

anterior or ventral

18
Q

toward back

A

posterior or dorsal

19
Q

close to reference pt

A

proximal

20
Q

further from reference pt.

A

distal

21
Q

General Types of Tissues (4)

A

Muscle
Connective
Nervous ( Neural)
Epithelial

22
Q

Specific Types of Epithelial Tissue (10)

A

1-Simple Squamous Epithelium
2-Karetinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium
3-Non- karetinized Stratified Squamous epithelium
4-Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
5-Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
6-Simple Columnar Epithelium
7-Stratified Columnar Epithelium
8-Pseudo-stratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
9-Transitional Epithelium
10-Glandular Epithelia

23
Q

Specific Types of Connective Tissues (11)

A
1-Areolar Tissue
2-Hyaline Cartilage
3-Elastic Cartilage
4-Fibrocartilage
5-Dense Regular Connective Tissue
6-Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
7-Elastic Connective Tissue
8-Adipose Tissue
9-Bone Tissue
10-Blood Tissue
11-Reticular Tissue
24
Q

Types of Muscle Tissues (3)

A

1-Smooth Muscle
2-Cardiac Muscle
3-Skeletal

25
Q

Nervous (Neural) Tissues

A

Neurons, neuroglia, axons, dendrites

26
Q

Classification of tissues done by these caterogories

A
  • # layers of cells

- Shape of cells

27
Q

Shapes of cells used in histology

A
  • Squamous: characterized by layers
  • Cuboidal: cube-like
  • Columnar: column-like
28
Q

Neck to waist anatomical regions

A

cervical, thoracic, sternal, mammary, axillary, acromial, brachial, antecubital, antebrachial, carpal, manus, palmar, digital (phalangeal), pollex, abdominal, umbilical

29
Q

anatomical regions, waist down

A

pelvic, inguinal, pubic, coxal, femoral, patellar, crural, fibular, tarsal, pedal, hallux

30
Q

Posterior anatomical regions

A

occipital, cervical, deltoid, brachial, olecranal, antebrachial, manus, digital, scapular, vertebral, lumbar, sacral, gluteal, gluteal, femoral, popliteal, sural, tarsal, calcaneal, plantar

31
Q

List the Types of Membranes

A
  • Mucous
  • Serous
  • Cutaneous
  • Synovial
32
Q

Mucous membranes are

A

coated with secretions of mucous

33
Q

Serous membranes

A

line the body cavities

34
Q

Synovial membranes

A

line many joint cavities

35
Q

Fascia

A

“connective tissue” usually areolar or dense connective tissue

  • superficial fascia
  • deep fascia
  • subseroous fascia
36
Q

Muscle tissues

A
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth
37
Q

Skeletal muscles

A
  • striated
  • multinucleate
  • Found in muscles attached to skeletal
  • voluntary muscles

*cells are as long as the muscles

38
Q

Cherry blossom looks like

A

Reticular connective tissue

39
Q

Strands of hair look like

A

Areolar connective tissue

40
Q

Octopus tentacles looks like

A

Elastic cartilage

41
Q

Eyes and clear pinkish background looks like

A

hyaline cartilage

42
Q

Cut wood looks like

A

Bone Connective Tissue

43
Q

no striations

A

smooth muscle

44
Q

Has striations

A

skeletal and cardiac muscle

45
Q

has striations and intercalated disc

A

Cardiac Muscle

46
Q

cartilage cell called

A

Chondrocytes

47
Q

Bone cell called

A

Osteocyte

48
Q

Adipose cell

A

Adipocyte

49
Q

Meissner corpuscle detects

A

light touch

50
Q

Pacinian/ Lamellated corpuscle detects

A

Deep pressure

51
Q

Functions of Integumentary

A

Protection, Thermoregulation, Synthesis of Vit D,

Sensation, immunity (white blood cells in deep layers)

52
Q

Layers of Epidermis (keratinized)

A

Stratum Corneum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Basale

“Cancer Loves Good Sun Burn”

53
Q

Layers of Dermis

A

Papillary layer, Reticular layer

54
Q

Sensory Receptors in Dermis

A

Pacinian corpuscle, meissner corpuscle, ruffini corpuscle,, free nerve endings (for pain), hair root plexus (for hair movement)

55
Q

Subcutaneous skin layer

A

hypodermis

56
Q

Accessory Structures

A

Hair, glands, nails,

good for warmth, shock absorption, filtration and sensation

57
Q

Simple Squamous epithelium where & fn

A

alveoli lining of the lungs or capillaries— one layer, tile-shaped cells

Fn: diffusion (in&out)

58
Q

non-keratinized and keratinized stratified squamous epithelium found in & fn

A

skin, lining of the mouth, vagina
Keratin (strong, waterproof protein so in skin)
fn: line things, protection from outside world, abrasion

59
Q

simple cuboidal epithelium found in

A

In secreting parts of glads and organs
- Kidneys (tubules)
-digestive tract
bronchioles of lungs

fn: secrete mucus

60
Q

stratified cuboidal epithelium found in

A

Also in secreting parts of glands and organs

also ducts of sweat glands

fn secrete mucus

61
Q

transitional epithelium found in & fn

A

bladder

fn: allow cells to change shape, allowing for stretching of the bladder

62
Q

simple columnar epithelium found in and fn

A

line digestive, reproductive & respiratory tracts
ie small intestines, stomach linings..
often have cilia(in repro- propel the ovum)

goblet cells

fn: absorption and secretion

lining the stomach and small intestine, goblet cells produce mucus

63
Q

stratified columnar epithelium found in

A

pharynx, urethra, anus

fn: line shit, secrete mucus

64
Q

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium found in

A

lines upper respiratory tract- Pharynx and trachea

fn: use cilia to move mucus

65
Q

Exocrine Glands modes of secretion

A

-Merocrine
-Holocrine
-Apocrine
stuff essentially secreted into ducts

66
Q

Merocrine secretion

A

secrete by exocytosis ie saliva

67
Q

Apocrine secretion

A

breakdown, detachment of a piece of tissue. ie: breastmilk.

“a portion is secreted”

68
Q

Holocrine secretion

A

whole cells get secreted. ie: oil glands

69
Q

Connective tissues always contain

A

specialized cells, protein fibers, and ground substance (liquid or solid)

Fibers + ground substance= MATRIX

70
Q

Types of fibers

A
  • Elastic fibers (skinny, stretchy and bendy)
  • Reticular fibers (net)
  • Collagen fibers (biggest and thickest)
71
Q

Connective Tissue Proper (meaning liquid ground substance)

A
  • areolar tissue
  • adipose tissue
  • reticular tissue
  • dense regular connective tissue
  • dense irregular connective tissue
  • elastic connective tissue
72
Q

Fluid connective tissues

A
  • blood

- lymph

73
Q

Supporting connective tissue

A
  • Hyaline Cartilage
  • Elastic cartilage
  • fibrocartilage
  • bone
  • mesenchyme
74
Q

Membranes

A

epithelial tissues + connective tissues

eg: skin

75
Q

areolar tissue found in

A

under skin

76
Q

adipose tissue found in

A

under skin, around organs

77
Q

reticular tissue found in

A

liver and spleen

78
Q

dense regular connective tissue found in

A

tendons and ligaments

79
Q

dense irregular connective tissue found in

A

dermis of the skin, kidney capsules

80
Q

elastic connective tissue found in

A

lungs, wall of arteries

81
Q

Hyaline cartilage has

A

chondrocytes in lacunae. Matrix=collagen in chondroitin sulfate

82
Q

hyaline cartilage found in

A

ends of bones, tip of nose, between ribs and sternum

83
Q

elastic cartilage found in

A

ear

many elastic fibers

84
Q

fibrocartilage found in i

A

intervertebral discs

dense interwoven collagen

85
Q

Bone has

A

osteocytes in lacunae.

Matrix= collagen + calcium salts. Canaliculi, and central canal

86
Q

an osteon is

A

the functional unit of compact bone

87
Q

Mesenchyme is

A

embryonic connective tissue (stem cells)

88
Q

keratin function

A

physical protection, makes things waterproof and UV protection

89
Q

integumentary system consist of

A

the skin, hair, nails and glands

90
Q

Epidermis made up of

A

keratinocytes and melanocytes

91
Q

Thick vs Thin skin

A

Thick has thick stratum corneum and stratum lucidum. Is found in palms and soles

Thin has thin stratum corneum and DOESNT have lucidum. found virtually everywhere

92
Q

Dermal papille is

A

hair like

93
Q

the dermis resembles a

A

net

94
Q

Hair strutures

A
  • Hairshaft
  • hair root
  • sebaceous gland
  • arrector pili muscle
  • hair bulb
  • hair matrix
  • papilla of hair
95
Q

matrix part of the hair fn

A

area of growth via mitosis

96
Q

Arrector pilli muscle fn

A

Tiny smooth muscle that pulls hair to an angle and causes ‘goosebumps’

97
Q

Cross section of hair follice out –in

A
  • connective tissue sheath
  • glassy membrane
  • external root sheath
  • internal root sheath
  • cuticle
  • cortex
  • medulla
98
Q

part of the hair that contains the pigment

A

cortex

99
Q

Hair types

A
  • Vellus hairs: fine, unpigmented “peach fuzz”

- Terminal Hairs: thicker, pigmented, vary in length

100
Q

Sebaceous glands

A

secrete oil (sebum) to minimize flaking.

Typically hook into hair, if not they are called Sebaceous Follicles

101
Q

Apocrine sweat glands

A

operate in merocrine manner, secrete smelly sweat.

Thought to possibly be involved in pheromonal attraction

102
Q

Eccrine sweat glands

A

operate in merocrine method, secrete watery sweat for thermoregulation

103
Q

Mammary glands

A

secrete milk, for newborns

104
Q

Ceruminous Glands

A
secrete cerumin  (earwax) to protect the ear drum
'sticky traps for bugs'
105
Q

Parts of the nail

A
  • free edge
  • nail bed
  • nail matrix
  • lunula: thick while part so we cant see through it
  • nail fold
  • nail groove
  • eponychium: ‘cuticle’
  • nail root
  • hyponychium: soft tissue below free edge
106
Q

Basal cell carcinoma

A

most common, least likely to metastasize, can be removed

107
Q

Squamous cell carcinoma

A

less common, more dangerous, more likely to spread

108
Q

Malignant carcinoma

A

Most rare, rapidly spreads, often fatal. asymetrical, irregular shape, color varying

Typically grows in the bottom later of dermis, often do not get big on the outside which makes difficult to detect. A

109
Q

Factors that increase risk of skin cancer

A

sun exposure, especially as a child, light skintone

110
Q

Senescence

A

the process of aging

111
Q

infection def , types

A

colonization by a parasite.

  • bacterial (tetanus, food poisoning)
  • viral (flu, cold)
  • fungal (yeast infection)
  • macroparasite (ie worms)
112
Q

Characteristics of life

A
  • made of cells
  • complex & ordered (have boundaries)
  • Metabolism
  • Eliminate waste
  • Homeostasis
  • Respond to environment
  • Grow, develop, reproduce
113
Q

Needed to maintain life

A

-nutrients - for energy & building cells

oxygen

114
Q

Tissue layers (4)

A
  • mucosa
  • submucosa
  • muscularis externa (2) -circular (inner) and longitudinal (outer)
  • serosa
115
Q

Function of epithelial tissues

A
  • protect from injury
  • absorb (ie digestive)
  • filter
  • secrete (ie mucus)
  • excrete (get rid of waste)
  • sensory

Have apical (top, ‘free’ surface and a basal surface

-many have nerve cells but no blood vessels (gets from submucosa)
highly regenerative

116
Q

Define cilia vs microvilli

A

Cilia: move back and forth to propel something (longer than microvilli) (reproductive tract, move the ovum)

Microvilli: small, hair-like extensions, increase s.a for absorption (small intestine)

117
Q

Basement membrane function & definition

A

Border between epithilial layer and connective tissues. Made out of glycoproteins
“acellular”
act as selective filters, since they are the receptors

118
Q

Lamina propria def & fn

A

loose connective tissue with blood vessels and glands

119
Q

glandular epithelium

where and fn

A

its a special case of cuboidal epithelium

fn: also secrete mucus

120
Q

physiology “topics” substidies

A
  • pathology: disease states– autoimmune, genetic, cancer
  • infection: bacterial, viral, fundal, macroparasite
  • developmental
121
Q

Positive vs negative feedback loops

A

positive: every change in environment is accentuated- cascaded
negative: loop causes a change to decrease stimulus (eg blood glucose level)

122
Q

Functional groups

A
  • amine
  • hydroxyl
  • phosphate