Module 11: The Special Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 11: The Special Senses Deck (33):
1

gustation

receptors for taste in the taste buds

2

Microvilli on taste buds

chemoreceptors

3

Papillae

tastebuds are on these elevations on the tongue

4

3 parts of taste buds

supporting cells
gustatory receptor cells
Basal cells

5

5 basic tastes

sour
sweet
bitter
salty
umami (beef, aging cheese)

6

Physiology of taste organs

microvilli are stimulated
impulse from TONGUE travels along cranial nerve VII (facial) and IX (glossopharyngeal)
impulse from epiglottis and lower pharynx travel along cranial X (vagus)
Impulses then go through medulla oblongata to thalamus
Interpreted in insula of the brain

7

Olfaction

smell

8

Olfactory receptor cells are found in the

olfactory epithelium

9

Physiology of Olfactory Organs

olfactory receptors stimulated
Impulse travels along cranial nerve I
Interpreted in temporal lobe

10

What nerves cause reflex reaction of sneezing

V and I

11

Accessory structures of the eye

eyebrow
eyelid
eyelashes
conjunctiva
lacrimal apparatus
extrinsic eye muscles

12

2 muscles under eyebrow

obicularis oculi
corrugators

13

Eyelid is also known as

palpebra

14

2 regions of conjunctiva of eye

palpebral conjunctiva (thick, adheres to eyelid)
Bulbar conjunctiva (covers surface of eyeball; conjunctival sac forms when eyelid is closed)

15

Lacrimal apparatus of eye

consists of lacrimal gland and tear ducts (almond shape)
Secretes lacrimal fluid (tears)
Tears drain through lacrimal puncta, lacrimal sal, nasolacrimal duct which empties into nasal cavity

16

Lacrimal fluid contains

lysozyme to destroy bacteria and prevent infection

17

Extrinsic eye muscles

Superior rectus (rolls eye upward)
Inferior rectus (downward)
Lateral rectus (outward)
Medial rectus (inward)
Superior oblique (medially)
Inferior oblique (laterally)

18

3 cranial nerves that control extrinsic eye muscles

oculomotor (cranial nerve III)
Abducens (cranial nerve VI)
Trochlear (cranial nerve IV)

19

3 layers of the eye

fibrous
vascular
inner (nervous)

20

Fibrous layer of eye

Sclera (white of eye)
Cornea (window of eye)

21

Vascular layer of eye

choroid
ciliary body
Iris

22

Inner nervous layer of eye

aka retina
Rods (120mi, dim light)
Cones (6.5mi, bright light, color)

23

Sight disorder

hyperopia (farsighted - only see far)
Myopia (nearsighted - only see close)

24

Cataracts

cloudy area in lens causing distorted images

25

Glaucoma

intraocular press when the drainage from aqueous humour is blocked

26

Outer ear

Pinna (flap)
auditory canal
Cerumen - earwax produced by ceremonies glands

27

Middle ear

tympanic membrane, ossicles, phyaryngotympanic tube

28

Inner ear

aka labyrinth

29

Cochlea

for hearing
shaped like snail
contains hair for hearing int he organ of Corti

30

Vestibule

in-between semicircular canals and cochlea
for balance

31

Semi circular canals

oval shaped
detect motion
for balance

32

Physiology of hearing

sound waves pass through external auditory canal and vibrate tympanic membrane
vibrates 2 ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)
causes perilymph in cochlea to move
endolymph which stimulate hair cells in organ or court
Nerve impulse travel along cochlear branch, cranial nerve VII to temporal lobe

33

Disorders of ear

impacted cerumen (earwax build up)
Ruptured tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Tinnitus (ringing in ear)