Module 4: Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 4: Tissues Deck (49):
1

4 classifications of tissues

Epithelial
Connective
Nervous
Muscle

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Epithelial Tissue

AKA epithelium
Covers external surface of the body and lines internal cavities and forms glands
no nerve supply or blood supply

3

Tight junctions/Desmosomes

eip's fit snugly together
very small amount of extracellular material between the narrow spaces of epi's

4

Apical

Free or open surface of the epi
Most have microvilli on their surfaces (for better absorption or secretion)

5

Basal Lamina

non cellular, thin supporting sheet at the bottom of the epic
provides selective barrier

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Shapes of Epi's

Squamous (thin, flat, nucleus shaped like disk)
Cuboidal (cube like, nucleus shaped like sphere)
Columnar (Tall and narrow, nucleus is long and narrow)

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Layers of Eips

Simple (one layer)
Stratified (2 or more layers)

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Simple squamous

lungs
for diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide

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simple cuboidal

kidney tubules
for absorption and secretion

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simple columnar

digestive tract
for absorption of nutrient and secretion of mucus

11

Pseudostratified Columnar

trachea
For secretion of mucus

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Stratified squamous

epidermis of skin
for protection

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Stratified cuboidal

swear and mammary glands
for protection

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stratified columnar

pharynx and male urethra
protection and secretion

15

Transitional Epis

Lining of urinary bladder
stretches in response to tension when urine fills the bladder

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Functions of Epithelial tissues

Protection
Sensory functions (receptors in epis in skin, nose, eyes, ears)
Secretion (glandular epis)
Absorption
Excretion (lining in kidneys filtrates urine)

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Exocrine Glands

Secret substances onto free surface via ducts
substances include digestive enzymes, mucus, saliva, perspiration, breast milk

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Endocrine Glands

Ductless, secret their substances directly onto surround tissues and blood
Substances include: hormones from pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands

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Connective tissue types (4)

cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone, blood
has embryonic origin (mesenchyme)
has blood supply (vascular) except cartilage
Has an extracellular matrix

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Parts of connective tissue

Specialized cells (fibroblast, macrophage, plasma, mast cells)
Extracellular protein fibres (collagen, elastic)
Ground substance (liquid, gel-like or solid form)

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Collagen fibers

flexible and strong
found in bone and cartilage

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Elastic fibers

Made from elastin
not as strong as collagen (but can return to original shape)
found in skin, walls of blood vessels, lung tissue

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Reticular fibers

Made from collagen (but arranged differently)
thin but organized
found in soft organs such as glands and lymph nodes

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Classification fo connective tissue (5)

loose connective, dense connective, cartilage, bone, blood

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Loose connective tissue

loosely packed fibres
Subcategories: Areolar
Adipose
Reticular

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Areolar

Binds organs together giving strength, elasticity and support
most dispersed, found underneath tips, in cavities, between muscles

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Adipose

Provides protection, insulation, support and place to store energy
fat tissue found under the skin, around kidneys, within abdomen and kidneys

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Reticular

Defends the body by filtering out microorganisms and other substances
Network of branching fibres found in spleen, lymph noes, bone marrow

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Dense connective tissue

Densely packed fibers
Subcategories: dense regular
Dense irregular
elastic

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Dense regular

provides tensile strength and flexibility for anchoring muscles to bones and bones to bones
Found in tendons and ligaments

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Dense irregular

Withstands stresses applied from any direction
Forms the dermis (inner skin layer); and outer layer of kidneys and spleen

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Elastic (Dense connective tissue)

Provides strength with stretching
Found in the wall of arteries

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Cartilage tissue

Both tough and flexible (due to high water content)
Lacks nerves and is avascular
Specialized cells called chondrocytes
Subcategories: hyaline
fibrocartilage
elastic

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Hyaline

Provides support with flexibility
absorbs shock in joints
"gristle" is most abundant type of cartilage
found in ends of long bones, larynx, nose, between sternum and ribs

35

Fibrocartilage

Provides protection and cushions body parts
found in intervertebral discs, knees, between pubic bones

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Elastic (cartilage)

provides support and a framework
found in the external ear and epiglottis

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Osseous

bone tissue
consists of bone cells that are embedded in a hard matrix of calcium and salts

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Vascular connective tissue

blood tissue
consists of blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)

39

Membranes

Thin sheets of tissue
Serous membranes line the ventral body cavities (not open to the exterior of the body)
Serous fluid reduces friction between cavities

40

Nervous tissue

Conducts electrical impulses
98% of nervous tissue in is central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
Composed of neurones and neuroglia (glial cells)

41

Muscle tissue

AKA muscle fibers contain protein (actin and myosin)
Muscles contract when these proteins interact
3 types: Skeletal, smooth, cardiac

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Skeletal muscle

Striated voluntary muscle
attaches to bones of the skeleton
moves body parts
fastest contracting

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Smooth muscle

non striated involuntary muscle
found in internal organs and blood vessels
contraction are slower than skeletal but muscles remain contracted for a longer period of time

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Cardiac Muscle

striated involunatry muscle
found only in the heart
resembles skeletal muscle but behaves like smooth muscle

45

Tissue repair

Regeneration and fibrosis

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Regeneration

replacement of cells that are identical to the originals
occurs in tissues whose cells undergo replication (mitosis)
ex. worn out skin cells

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Fibrosis

Replacement by the formation of fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue)
very strong but lacks flexibility and elasticity

48

Steps of tissue repair

1)inflammation -stimulates immune system
2)organization - restores blood supply and replaces damaged cells
3)regeneration and fibrosis - the repaired tissue remoulds itself

49

Tissues and aging

Loss in height due to fallen arches, worn out disks
Decrease in lung capacity, muscle strength, kidney function
Brittle bones that break
Easy to bruise
Joint pain
Deterioration of mental functions