Module 7: The Skeleton and Joints Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology MB > Module 7: The Skeleton and Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 7: The Skeleton and Joints Deck (33):
1

Axial Skeleton

80 Bones
Skull
Vertebrae
Ribs
Hyoid bone
Sternum

2

Appendicular Skeleton

126 Bones
Upper and lower extremities
Pelvic girdle
Pectoral girdle

3

Skull (cranial bones)

1 frontal (forehead)
2 parietal (top and sides of skull)
2 temporal (temple region)
1 occipital (rear of skull)

4

Skull (facial bones)

2 nasal
2 maxillae (upper lip)
1 mandible (jaw)
2 zygomatic (cheek bones)

5

Hyoid Bone

Only bone in body that does not join with any other bone
Purpose is to provide a movable base for the tongue

6

Ear Bones

2 malleus - hammer
2 incus - anvil
2 stapes - stirrup

7

Vertebrae

7 cervical (C1-C7)
12 Thoracic (T1-T12)
5 Lumbar (L1-L5)
5 fused sacral bones (sacrum)
4 fused coccygeal bones (coccyx/tailbone)

8

Sternum

consists of manubrium, body, and xiphoid process

9

Ribs

24 (12 pairs)
Each pair articulate with one of the 12 thoracic vertebrae

10

Pectoral Girdle (shoulder girdle)

Scapula and clavicle
Attaches upper extremities to axial skeleton

11

Pelvic Girdle (hip)

2 hipbones unite anteriorly at the pubic symphysis; and posteriorly at the sacrum
Hipbone formed of ilium, pubis and ischium
Provides strong and stable support for lower extremities

12

Upper extremities

Humerus (upper arm)
Radius (lower lateral arm)
Ulna (lower medial arm)
Carpals (8 wrist bones)
Metacarpals (5 hand bones)
Phalanges (14 fingers bones)

13

Lower extremities

Femur (upper leg bone)
Patella (kneecap)
Tibia (lower medial leg bone/shin)
Fibula (lower lateral leg bone)
Tarsals (7 ankle bones)
Metetarsals (5 foot bones)
Phalanges (14 toe bones)

14

Fibrous joints

Structural classification
Fibrous tissue
No joint cavity between bones
Suture Joints most common
Syndesmoses and gomphoses are 2 other types

15

Cartilaginous Joints

Structural classification
Bones joined by cartilage
No joint cavity
Synchondroses and symphyses are 2 types

16

Synovial joints

Structural classification
bones separated by a fluid-containing cavity
Most joints are this kind

17

Synarthrosis

Functional classification of joints
Immovable joint
Held together by dense fibrous connective tissue

18

Amphiarthrosis

Functional classification of joints
Slightly movable joint
Separated by cartilage

19

Diathrosis (synovial joints)

Functional classification of joints
Freely moveable joine
Most joints are this type

20

4 things synovial joints consist of

Articular cartilage (surface of each end of the joining bones)
Joint Capsule (fibrous connective tissue encloses the joint in a strong sleeve-like covering)
Synovial Membrane (line Inner surfaces of joint cavity, secretes synovial fluid into cavity)
Synovial Fluid (eases friction)

21

Types of synovial joints (6)

Plane (wrist, ankle bones)
Hinge (elbow, fingers, toes)
Pivot (proximal radioulnar joints)
Condyloid (metacarpophalangeal joints/knuckles)
Saddle (carpometacarpal joint of thumb)
Ball and socket (shoulder, hip)

22

Flexion

type of synovial joint movement
Bending of a joint that decreases the angle

23

Extension

type of synovial joint movement
Straightening of a joint that increases angle

24

Plantar flexion

type of synovial joint movement
Pointing your toe

25

Dorsiflexion

type of synovial joint movement
Lifting your foot towards your leg

26

Hyperextension

type of synovial joint movement
Overextending a joint beyond normal straightened position

27

Abduction

type of synovial joint movement
Movement away from midline of body

28

Adduction

type of synovial joint movement
Movement towards the midline of the body

29

Inversion

type of synovial joint movement
Turning sole of foot inward so that it faces the opposite foot

30

Eversion

type of synovial joint movement
Turning the sole of your for outwards, away from your body

31

Supination

type of synovial joint movement
Turning your hand so that the palm faces upward

32

Pronation

type of synovial joint movement
Turning your hand so that the palm faces downward

33

Circumduction

type of synovial joint movement
Combination of movements