Module 13: Blood and Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology MB > Module 13: Blood and Blood Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 13: Blood and Blood Vessels Deck (48):
1

3 functions of blood

distribution (oxygen, CO2, nutrients, waste, hormones)
regulation (body temp, pH, volume of fluid)
protection (controls bleeding, defends infection)

2

Characteristics of blood

Fluid connective tissue
Stickly
Salty
Scarlet/dark red color
8% of body's weight
4-6L
pH 7.35-7.45
Higher than body temp

3

Blood is formed of 2 things

plasma and formed elements

4

formed elements

rbc, wbc, platelets

5

Hematocrit

percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood

Males: 40-54%
Females: 38-46%

6

Buffy coat of centrifuged blood

leukocytes and platelets

7

Erythrocytes

120 day lifespan
Produced at rate of 2mi/second

8

Hemoglobin ranges

Adult male: 135-180g/L
Adult female: 120-160g/L
infants: 140-200g/L

9

Leukocytes

lifespan of a few days to 15 years
contain granulocytes or may be agranulocytes

10

Granulocytes

neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils

11

Agranulocytes

lymphocytes
monocytes

12

Thrombocytes

platelets
fragments of megakaryocytes
Lifespan of 7 days

13

Plasma

intercellular matrix in blood
Straw color
55% of blood volume
90% water and 10% ions, proteins, fats, glucose, vitamins, nutrients, hormones, oxygen, co2, antibodies, waste

14

vessels are lined with

endothelium (single layer of squamous epithelial cells)

15

5 components of hemostasis

Form a clot: vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation, coagulation
Braking system: Fibrinolysis, Natural inhibitors/anticoagulants

16

vasoconstriction

smooth muscle in vessel walls constrict
platelets move toward injury site

17

Platelet plug formation

contact with collagen
platelet plug fills gap to prevent further blood loss

18

coagulation

only if injury is severe and requires actual clot
coagulation factors activated
prothrombin to thrombin
Fibrin threads form mesh that adheres to the damaged tissue and traps blood cells and platelets to form the clot

19

Fibrinolysis

after healing, clot is dissolved by enzymes

20

Natural inhibitors/anticoagulants

some coagulation factors escape area of injury
natural substances in blood with dispose of escaped factors

Heparin, TPA, Streptokinase

21

Vitamin K

produced by bacteria in large intestine
absorbed into bloodstream by colon
Stimulates liver cells to increase synthesis of prothrombin
Newborns get injection of vit K to prevent abnormal bleeding as they can't produce it right away

22

ABO groups

based on specific antigens on rbc membrane and antibodies in plasma

23

antigen aka

agglutinogens

24

antibodies aka

agglutinins

25

Type A blood

A antigens on RBC
Anti B antibodies in plasma

26

Type B Blood

B antigens on RBC
Anti A antibodies in plasma

27

Types AB Blood

A and B antigens on RBC
No antibodies in plasma

28

Type O Blood

Neither A or B antigens on RBC
Anti A and anti B antibodies in plasma

29

Universal recipient

type AB because they have no antibodies

30

Universal donor

type O because they have either types a or b antigens

31

anastomosis

union of the branches of 2 or more blood vessels supplying blood to the same region

32

collateral circulation

blood can be supplied to the area by an alternate route

33

end arteries

arteries that do not anastomose

34

3 tunics (layers) of blood vessels

Tunica Interna (Endothelium, simple squamous epi cells)
Tunica Media (muscular)
Tunica Externa (elastic tissue/collagen)

35

ECG waves

P - SA node through walls of atria
QRS - spread of impulse through walls of ventricles and recovery of the atria after contraction
T - recovery of the ventricles after contraction

36

Blood pressure

highest in arteries
Lowest in veins

37

Blood pressure cuff

sphygmomanometer used with a stethoscope

38

Regular blood pressure

120/80mmHg
systolic (pressure during contraction of ventricle)/ diastolic (pressure during relaxation of ventricles)

39

heart rate is controlled by

cardiac center in medulla of brain
receives impulses from pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors

40

tachycardia

rate above 100bpm

41

bradycardia

rate below 60bpm

42

normal heart rate

72bpm

43

Hemophilia

inability to clot blood
sex-linked hereditary disorder
affects mostly males
transmitted by females
normal plt, but lack of plasma protein for coagulation

44

Leukemia

blood cancer
chemotherapy and antineoplastic agents for treatment

45

MI

myocardial infarction
blockage of coronary arterial circulation
tissue dies without oxygen
Coronary bypass surgery/angioplasty to reduce heart damage

46

Hypertension

blood pressure above 140/90mmHg
causes heart failure, kidney disease, stroke

47

Arteriosclerosis

hardening of arteries
caused by fatty deposits that develop in inner lining of blood vessel
can cause MI and stroke

48

Effects of aging on blood system

left ventricle gets smaller
valves thicken, heart murmur
decreased ability of heart response to stress