Module 19: The Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 19: The Reproductive System Deck (30):
1

Structures of male reproductive system

testes
epididymis
vas deferens
seminal vesicles
ejaculatory duct
prostate gland
bulbourethral gland
penis

2

function of testes

descend into scrotum
divided into lobules
further divided into seminiferous tubules (sperm production)
Interstitial cells (leydig cells) produce testosterone

3

function of epidiymis

coiled tube that collects sperm cells (sperm maturation)
Stores sperm for up to 2 months

4

function of Vas Deferens

a direct continuation of the epididymis
3 layers of muscle in walls to move sperm during ejaculation

5

function of seminal vesicles

hollow glands
ducts that join with each vas deferent
Product alkaline viscous secretion added to sperm to form semen to nourish sperm

6

Function of ejaculatory ducts

formed by union of vas deferent and seminal vesicle ducts
open not the first part of the urethra

7

function of prostate gland

surrounds urethra at points where ejaculatory ducts are formed
adds alkaline secretions to semen (help neutralize acidic vaginal fluid)

8

Bulbourethral Glands (cowpers glands)

add alkaline secretions

9

sperm pH

pH 7.5

10

Male hormones

Testosterone
responsible for normal growth, development of sex organs, sperm production
Develops male secondary sex characteristics (voice change, beard, muscle)
Growth promoting effect

11

Structures of female reproductive system

fimbriae
ovary
endometrium (of uterus)
cervix
fallopian tube
round ligament
myometrium (of uterus)
clitoris
vagina
labia
perimetrium (of uterus)

12

Function of ovaries

contain immature ova
each ovum is enclosed in a follicle
secretes estrogens and progesterone

13

Uterine (fallopian) tubes

carry ova from ovaries to uterus
moved along the tube by cilia lining the internal surface of the wall
funnel like end of uterine tube = infundibulum
finger like projections = finbriae

14

Uterus

outermost perimetrium
middle myometrium
inner endometrium (consists of stratum baseless and stratum functionalis)

15

Vagina

extends from cervix to outside of body
lined with mucous membrane

16

Pathway of an ovum

fimbriae of fallopian tube sweep ovum into the tube
Propelled towards uterus
If fertilization has not taken place, the ovum is shed during next menstrual period

17

Female hormones

estrogen
progesterone
human chorionic gonadotropin

18

estrogen

produced by follicular cells
promote growth of female reproductive organs
induce ovulation
cause thickening of uterine lining
promote development of female secondary sex characteristics

19

progesterone

secreted by mature follicle (called corpus luteum) after it has ruptured during ovulation
prepared lining of endometrium of uterus for implantation of fertilized ovum
inhibits ovulations during pregnancy
causes largement of mammary glands during pregnancy

20

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

secreted by cells that form outer layer of placenta
make sure corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone during first few months of pregnancy

21

menstrual cycle

hormonal secretion and endometrial lining of uterus
28 days long
Ovulation and preparation of the endometrium for implantation should the ovum become fertilized

22

Stages of menstrual cycle

menstrual phase
Proliferative phase (perovulatory)
secretory phase

23

Menstrual phase

first 5 days
withdrawal of hormonal support from endometrium, lining is shel (period)
first day of menstruation = first day of new cycle

24

Proliferative Phase

next 10 days
time between menstruation and ovulation
Several ova and surrounding follicles start to develop under influence of FSH; only one ovum and its follicle continue to grow
follicle secretes estrogen

25

Secretory phase

day 15-28
called progestational phase
Ovulation occurs between proliferative and secretory phase
mature follicle ruptures and ovum are released to uterus
If fertilization does not occur, corpus luteum begins to degenerate

26

menopause

end of child bearing years
menstruation has ceased for more than 1 year

27

fertilization

union of gametes (sex cells)
union of ovum and sperm cell
each contain half # of chromosomes

28

Gestation

length of time from conception to birth
about 280 days

29

Parturition

act of giving birth

30

Lactation

secretion and ejection of milk by mammary glands