Module 3: Cellular Level of Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 3: Cellular Level of Organization Deck (32):
1

Regions of a cell (3)

Plasma membrane (aka cell membrane)
Cytoplasm
Nucleus

2

Phospholipid bilayer

Phosphate heads, proteins, carbs and cholesterol molecules scattered within bilayer
Phosphate layer is hydrophilic
Phosphate "tails" are hydrophobic

3

Protein molecules

capable of moving from one side of membrane to the other
provide structural support
Provide channels for water and other substances to enter the cell
Act as receptors for hormones and enzymes

4

Carbohydrates

Glycoproteins (sugar "glycocalyx" and protein) act as identification markers

5

Cholesterol

20% of plasma membrane
Provides stiffness for membrane

6

Plasma Membrane

Composed of the phospholipid bilayer
Separates extracellular and intracellular material
Selective permeability

7

Cytoplasm

supports organelles and inclusions

8

Cytosol

fluid part of cytoplasm

9

Organelles

Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Cytoskeleton
Centrosome and centrioles
Cilia
Flagella
Nucleus

10

Mitochondria

"power plant" of cell
Shaped like sausages
Convert energy in nutrients to ATP
Have their own DNA and RNA

11

Ribosomes

Synthesize proteins
Attached to endoplasmic reticulum or "free" in cytoplasm

12

Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

Contains ribosomes

13

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Synthesize steroids
No ribosomes

14

Golgi apparatus

"traffic director" of proteins
Looks like stack of plates
Packages protein for delivery inside or outside the cell

15

Lysosomes

"housekeepers" of the cell
Sacs that bud off golgi complex
Powerful enzymes "eat" worn out cell parts, dead cells, bacteria

16

Peroxisomes

Digest normal toxic by-products of cellular metabolism

17

Cytoskeleton

composed of proteins
provides intracellular shape and support

18

Centrioles

Pair of rod-shaped structures
Separate chromosomes during mitosis

19

Cilia

Hairs across cell membrane (outside of cell)

20

Flagella

Provides movement of an entire cell

21

Inclusions

non-functioning units that appear and disappear
-stored nutrients

22

Nucleus

"captain of the ship"
Surrounded by double layer membrane (nuclear envelope) with pores
Filled with nucleoplasm that dissolves salts, nutrients, etc
Contains nucleolus
Stores genetic info

23

Nucleolus

Inside the nucleus, makes ribosomes and chromatin

24

Chromatin

a complex network of threads containing DNA
forms into chromosomes when a cell is about to divide

25

Passive transportation

no ATP required
includes simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and filtration

26

Active transportation

ATP required
Includes active transport pumps, endocytosis and exocytosis

27

Endocytosis

Transporting bulk material into a cell
Particles surrounded by plasma membrane, sac is formed and then is pulled inside the cell
Includes: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis

28

Phagocytosis

"cell eating"

29

Pinocytosis

"cell drinking"

30

Receptor mediated endocytosis

specific membrane receptor binds with specific substance and then brought into cell

31

Exocytosis

Vesicles moved from Golgi apparatus into plasma membrane.
Vesicle membrane fuses with plasma membrane, then ruptures, letting go of the product to the outside of the cell

32

Vesicles

sacs of "outgoing" product
packaged by Golgi apparatus