Module 1: Organization of the Human Body Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology MB > Module 1: Organization of the Human Body > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 1: Organization of the Human Body Deck (84):
1

Anatomy

science of body structures and the relationships among them

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dissection

careful cutting apart of body structures to study

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Physiology

the science of body functions

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Embryology

first 8 weeks of development after fertilization of a human egg

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Developmental biology

complete development of an individual from fertilization to death

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Cell biology

Cellular structure and function

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Histology

study of microscopic structure of tissues

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Gross anatomy

Structures that can be examined without a microscope

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Systemic anatomy

Structure of specific systems of the body
ex. nervous, respiratory system

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Regional anatomy

Specific regions of the body such as the head or chest

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Surface anatomy

Surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation

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Pathological anatomy

Structural changes (gross to microscopic) associated with disease

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Neurophysiology

Functional properties of nerve cells

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Endocrinology

Hormones and how they control body functions

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Cardiovascular physiology

Functions of the heart and blood vessels

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Immunology

The body defences against disease-causing agents

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Respiratory physiology

Functions of the air passageways and lungs

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Renal physiology

Functions of the kidneys

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Exercise physiology

changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity

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Pathophysiology

Functional changes associated with disease and aging

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Levels of structural organization (Small-high)

Chemical
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
System
Organismal

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Chemical level (simplest)

Interactions and combinations of atoms

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Cellular Level

Combinations of molecules forming cells

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Tissue Level

Similar cells working together to perform a similar function

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Organ Level

Several types of tissue that work together to perform a similar function

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System Level

Several organs that each have a specific function int he overall activity of a body system

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Organismal Level (highest)

All the body systems

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11 Major systems

Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic/immune
Digestive
Respiratory
Urinary
Reproductive

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Integumentary System

Skin, accessory organs (hair, nails, sweat glands)
Regulates body temp

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Skeletal System

Bones of the skeleton and associated cartilage
Protects/supports organs, forms blood cells, stores minerals

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Muscular System

Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle
Produces movement, body heat

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Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves
Coordinates body actives through rapid activation of muscles and glands

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Endocrine System

Ductless Grands that secrete hormones
Regulates metabolism and chemical reactions

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Cardiovascular System

Heart and blood vessels
Transport nutrients, gases

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Lymphatic/immune System

Lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes
Returns extracellular fluid to the blood, defends against disease

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Digestive System

Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and accessory organs

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Respiratory System

Lungs and the tubes that bring air to and from the lungs

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Urinary System

Kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Removes metabolic wastes, regulates fluid levels, acid-base levels

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Reproductive System

Testes, glands, ducts, penis (Male)
Ovaries, ducts, uterus and vagina (female)

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Homeostasis

In a state of equilibrium
Controlled by nervous and endocrine system

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Negative feedback

opposes a change in the internal environment and causes a return to normal

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Positive feedback

temporarily causes an increasing rate of events to occur until something stops the process

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Correct Anatomical Position

Body is standing
Arms at sides
Palms forward; thumbs pointing away from body
Head and feet pointed forward

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Supine position

Lying face up

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Prone position

Lying face down

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Superior

Above a structure; toward the head

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Inferior

Below a structure; away from the head

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Anterior (ventral)

Toward the front

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Posterior (dorsal)

Toward the back

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Medial

Toward the middle

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Lateral

Away from the middle; towards the side

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Intermediate

Between the side and middle

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Ipsilateral

On the same side of the body

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Contralateral

On the opposite side of the body

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Proximal

Closer to the origin

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Distal

Farthest from the orgin

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Superficial

Towards or at the body surface

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Deep

Away from the body surface
Internal

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Body Regions (2)

Axial
Appendicular

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Axial

head, neck trunk (torso)

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Appendicular

upper and lower limbs (arms, legs)

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Sagittal plane

Vertical line that separates the body into left and right parts

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Midsagittal (median) plane

Vertical line that separates the body into EQUAL left and right parts

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Parasagittal plane

Vertical line that separates the body into UNEQUAL left and right parts

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Frontal (coronal) plane

Vertical line that separates the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts

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Transverse (horizontal) plane

AKA cross sections
Horizontal line that separates the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) parts

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Oblique plane

Diagonal line between the horizontal and vertical planes

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Dorsal cavity

Cranial cavity (brain)
Spinal cavity (spinal cord)

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Ventral Cavity

Thoracic cavity (heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, large blood vessels) separated on either side of the mediastinum
Abdominopelvic cavity (Stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, small/large intestine, rectum, bladder, internal reproductive organs)

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Diaphragm

large muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

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Atoms

smallest unity of matter

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Molecules

two or more atoms joined together

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Metabolism

sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body

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Catabolism

the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components

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Anabolism

building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components

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Basic Life processes

Metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproduction

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Intracellular fluid (ICF)

fluid within the cells

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Extracellular fluid (ECF)

fluid outside body cells, Plasma in blood, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, aqueous humour and vitreous body (eye)

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Interstitial fluid

ECF that fills narrow spaces between cells of tissues

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Feedback system

system where body is monitored
1)Receptor - monitors changes and sends input
2)Control center - sets range of values for a controlled condition and outputs
3)Effector - structure that receives output and produces a response

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Serous Membrane

slippery, double layered membrane associated with body cavities that do not open directly to the exterior

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Pleura

Serous membrane of the lungs

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Pericardium

Serous membrane of the pericardial cavity

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Peritoneum

Serous membrane over abdominal cavity