Module 16: The Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 16: The Respiratory System Deck (48):
1

functions of respiratory system

continuous supply of oxygen for metabolic activities
Removal of CO2
Regulation of pH of blood

2

Processes of respiratory system

pulmonary ventilation
external respiration
transport of respiratory gases
internal respiration

3

Pulmonary ventilation

aka breathing in and out

4

External respiration

exchange of gases between blood and lungs

5

Transport of respiratory gases

gases are transported in RBC and blood plasma

6

Internal respiration

exchange of gases between blood and tissue cells

7

Structures of respiratory system (2 zones)

conducting zone (macroscopic)
respiratory zone (microscopic)

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Conducting zone consists of

passageways for the conduction of air
nose
pharynx (throat)
Larynx (voice box)
Trachea (windpipe)
Bronchi
Terminal bronchioles

9

Functions of conducting zone - nose

Provides airway for respiration
moistens and warms air
cleans and filters unwanted particles
aids in speech
provides a sight for the olfactory receptors

10

Parts of the nose:

External nares: Nostrils, anterior portion is vestibule
Nasal cavities: separated by nasal septum; 3 bony projections called conchae; sticky mucus traps foreign particles
Internal nares: opening between nose and throat
Paranasal sinuses: maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses

11

Pharynx

aka throat
consists of nasopharynx (air), oropharynx and laryngopharynx(food and air)

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Larynx

aka voice box
contains vocal cords
connects pharynx to trachea
epiglottis covers opening of larynx

13

Trachea

aka windpipe
provides passageway for air to move in and out of lungs
Cleans warms and moistens incoming air

14

Bronchi

Trachea branches into left bronchus and right bronchus which lead to each lung

15

Terminal bronchioles

provide the passageway into the respiratory zone

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Respiratory zone (microscopic)

respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts

17

Respiratory bronchioles

formed from branchings of the terminal bronchioles

18

Alveolar ducts

respiratory bronchioles lead into ducts
Ducts lead into clusters of alveoli

19

Alveoli (air sacs)

provide surface area for exchange of gases
found in clusters called alveolar sacs

20

3 types of cells in alveoli

Type I alveolar (simple squamous epithelium) provide site for gas exchange
Type II alveolar (septal cells) produce surfactant (compound that prevents alveoli from collapsing)
Macrophages (dust cells) clean up foreign material

21

Structure of the lungs

weigh 1kg
soft spongy and elastic
Take up all of thoracic cavity
Cone shaped
Each lung encased in pleura sac
base sits on diaphragm

22

Hilus

area in each lung where blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves and the bronchus enter and leave the lung

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lobes in lungs

right lung has 3 lobes (55% of gas exchange)
left lung has 2 lobes (45% of gas exchange)

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Lobes of lungs are divided into

bronchopulmonary segments

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Lobules

small macroscopic subdivisions of bronchopulmonary segments

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2 layers of pleura

visceral layer hugs lung surface
Parietal layer lines thoracic wall and upper surface of diaphragm

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During normal inhalation (inspiration)

thoracic volume increases
pressure in lungs decreases

28

During normal exhalation (expiration)

pressure in lungs increases and forces air out of the lungs
Thoracic volume decreases

29

Gas exchange in lungs

air inhaled
o2 from air diffuses from alveoli into capillaries
CO2 diffuses from capillaries into the alveoli
CO2 is exhaled

30

Gas exchange in body cells

oxygen leaves capillary blood and diffuses into the cells where it can be used during cellular metabolism
Co2 diffuses into the capillary blood as metabolism occurs in the cell

31

Transportation of oxygen

diffuses across alveoli into capillaries
O2 then dissolves in plasma
3% of O2 is transported as dissolved gas
97% of O2 is carried by Hb molecules

32

Transport of CO2

diffuses from tissue cells into capillaries
7% dissolved in plasma
23% with Hb in RBC
70% as bicarbonate ions in plasma

33

Medullary rhythmicity center

sets basic pattern of respiration
inspiration lasts 2 seconds
expiration lasts 3 seconds
normally 12-20 breaths per min in adult
20-40 in children

34

Chemical control of respiration

chemoreceptors are stimulated and relay messages to the brain
Central and peripheral

35

Central chemoreceptors

found in CNS (in medulla)
sensitive to increases in CO2 and H+ levels

36

Peripheral chemoreceptors

found in PNS (walls of carotid arteries and in aorta)
Detect decreases in oxygen levels

37

Factors that influence breathing

yawning
sneezing
coughing
hiccupping
crying
laughing

38

Bronchitis

inflammation of bronchial tubes
coughing up sputum

39

Laryngitis

inflammation of larynx
dry, sore throat with hoarse or no voice

40

Pneumonia

inflammation of lungs
inflamed lungs, high fever, cough, sputum with pus and blood

41

sinusitis

inflammation of sinuses
inflammation of paranasal cavities, headaches, pain, pressure in the bones of the face

42

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx
sore throat and fever

43

Bacterial diseases

bronchitis
laryngitis
pneumonia
sinusitis
pharyngitis

44

Viral diseases

influenza
common cold

45

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)

aka Hyaline membrane disease (HMD)
most common cause of death in newborn
caused by deficient amount of surfactant
Difficulty breathing (exhausts the infant)

46

Lung cancer

accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths
most patients die within one year of diagnosis
85-90% of lung cancers are due to cigarette smoke

47

asthma

inflammatory disorder
narrowing of airways
coughing, difficulty breathing, wheezing

48

Aging and the respiratory system

lung capacity decreases
lungs becomes less elastic (oxygen delivery to tissue cells is impaired)
Elderly more susceptible to diseases due to decreases activity of macrophages