Module 5: Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology MB > Module 5: Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 5: Integumentary System Deck (30):
1

Integumentary System includes:

skin, nails, hair, sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands

2

Functions of Integumentary System

Protection
Regulation of body temp
Receptors of stimuli
Metabolic activity
Storing blood
Excretion

3

Protection

Skin protects body from bacterial invasion, physical injury, fluid loss
Acidic oils stop growth of pathogenic invaders
Skin is waterproof due to protein, Keratin

4

Regulation of Body Temp

Dilation and constriction of blood vessels and activity of sweat glands
Too hot = vessels dilate, sweat glands excrete water
Too cold = vessels constrict and warm blood temporarily bypasses the skin

5

Receptors of Stimuli

Skin has receptors that indicate heat, cold, touch, pressure
Exteroceptors relay info about environment so brain can make changes to prevent or minimize injury

6

Metabolic Activity

UV rays assist skin cells in producing Vit D (needed for normal bone growth and development)

7

Blood Reservoir

5% of body's blood is in the skin
When extra blood is needed, nervous system constricts vessels in skin and more blood is free to flow into other areas of the body

8

Excretion

Excess water and salts excreted by skin

9

Layers of the skin

Epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer)

10

Epidermis

Outer layer (stratified squamous epithelium)
Closely packed cells form barrier to protect body (with keratin)
Surface cells are dead
Deeper layers are alive and constantly dividing to replace surface cells
No blood supply
Deep layers contain melanin

11

Layers of Epidermis

Deep to superficial:
Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum (found in palms and soles only)
Stratum corneum
"CORi's GRANny SPINs BASketballs"

12

Dermis

Called corium (True skin)
Found beneath epidermis
Strong, flexible loose and dense connective tissues
Contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, hair follicles, sweat glands
Composed of 2 layers: Upper papillary layer and lower reticular layer

13

Upper Papillary Layer

Composed of papillae that extend into epidermis
Blood vessels, nerve endings, sensory receptors extend into these to bring them closer to the skin surface
Papillae form distinct patterns on hands and feet (fingerprints)

14

Lower Reticular Layer

Attached to underlying hypodermic
Reticular layer is strong

15

Skin Color Pigments (3)

Melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

16

Melanin

Brown-black pigment found in epidermis
Formed in cells called Melanocytes (Plentiful mucous membrane, penis, nipples, face, arms, legs)
All races have same # of melanocytes but amount of melanin produced is different

17

Carotene

Yellow-orange pigment found in vegetable build ups in the Stratum corneum and fatty parts of dermis

18

Hemoglobin

Reddish pigment (NOT found in skin cells; in RBCs)
Oxygenated blood flowing through dermis gives skin pinkish color
Significant decrease in O2, skin will have bluish color

19

Cyanosis

bluish color of the skin

20

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands

Secrete sweat
3 Million/person
Found in dermal region of skin
Lots in palms and soles
2 Types: Apocrine Glands and Eccrine Glands

21

Apocrine Glands

Associated with hair follicles found in armpits/genitals
Become active during puberty
Accumulation of sweat changed by bacteria into unpleasant smelling chemical (aka body odour)

22

Eccrine Glands

Not associated with hair follicles
Function throughout lifetime
Found all over body (esp. forehead, upper lips, palms, soles)

23

Sebaceous (oil) Glands

Secrete Sebum (oily substance)
Associated with hair follicles
Found in all areas with hair
Sebum helps to waterproof hair and skin, and inhibit growth of bacteria on the skins surface

24

Hair

Found on nearly all surfaces except palms and soles, ends of fingers/toes, lips, nipples
Hair grows 1mm/3 days, when it becomes long it stops growing

25

Functions of hair

Protections
Eyebrows, eyelashes, nostril hairs protect from particles in the air
Hair on scalp provides "cushion" for head injury

26

Structures of Hair

Shaft, roots, medulla

27

Nails

Epidermal cells that have been converted to hard Keratin
Free edge, nail body, nail root
Eponychium (cuticle) is a fold of stratum corneum
Lunula (whitish crescent-shaped part)
Protect underlying tissue from trauma

28

First-degree burn

eg. sunburn
Superficial cells of epidermis are destroyed
Skin is inflamed and tender

29

Second-degree burn

Superficial and deeper cells of epidermis are destroyed (dermis may be affected)
Blisters on skin, burn is painful

30

Third-degree burn

All epidermal and dermal cells are destroyed
Skin is charred, no sensation at all
Immediate threat to life is loss of body fluids (several litres/day)