Module 12: The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 12: The Endocrine System Deck (44):
1

target cells

cells that respond to hormones

2

Functions of hormones

growth/repair
balance of energy
response to stress
maintain pH
Reproduction

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Endocrine system vs nervous system

Endo: communicated with body cells through hormones
Effects are in minutes/hours/weeks

Nervous: communicates with body cells through electrical impulses and chemical neurotransmitters
Effects in seconds

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Major endocrine glands

Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Adrenal
Pineal
Thymus

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Other tissue that produces hormones

pancreas
gonads
hypothalamus

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Chemical classification of hormones

Amino based - proteins, most hormones are this

Steroid - synthesized by cholesterol, sex hormones and those from adrenal cortex

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Protein hormones react with receptors on the

surface of the cell
rapid reactions

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steroid hormones react with receptors on the

inside of a cell
slow reactions

9

Negative feeback

info about effects of hormones is "fed back" to gland which decreases secretion of the hormone

10

Neural stimuli

Hormones affected by direct stimuli to cause a gland to secrete its hormone

11

Hormonal Stimuli

hormones that are controlled in response to other hormones

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Pituitary gland

"master gland"
aka hypophysis

Anterior and posterior

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Hypothalamus

controls pituitary gland
adenohyphophysis (regulates hormonal secretions into blood vessels; stop or start secretion)

neurohypophysis (produced in hypothalamus and sent into capillary bed to be stored and released)

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Hormones associated with hypothalamus

Growth hormone
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticoprophic (ACTH)
FSH
LH
Prolactin (PRL)
Oxytocin
Antidiuretic (ADH)

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Growth hormone (GH)

aka somatotropin
targets most body tissue
stimulates growth by promoting protein synthesis

16

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

aka thyrotropin
targets thyroid gland
stimulates production of thyroid hormones

17

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormones (ACTH)

targets cortex of adrenal glands
stimulates production of hormones in adrenal cortex

18

Follicle stimulating hormones (FSH)

targets testes and ovaries
stimulates production of sperm, maturation of ova and production of estrogen by ovaries

19

Luteinizing hormones (LH)

targets reproductive organs
stimulates production of testosterones, estrogen and progesterone
stimulates ovulation

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Prolactin (PRL)

targets mammary glands
stimulates milk production

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Oxytocin

targets uterus, mammary glands
stimulates uterine contractions/labor
Simulates ejection of milk

22

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

aka vasopressin
targets kidneys
Increases water reabsorption in tubules

23

Thyroid gland

very vascular
2 lobes connected by isthmus
Internally has follicles (thyroid hormones) and parafollicular cells (produce calcitonin)

24

Thyroid gland hormones

T3 (triiodothyronine)
T4 (thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine)
Calcitonin

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T3 and T4

targets most body cells
regulates energy balances
increases rate of protein synthesis
regulates growth

26

Calcitonin

targets bone tissue
regulates calcium blood levels by inhibiting the release of calcium from bone tissue into blood

27

Parathyroid gland

4 small glands
Parathyroid hormones

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Parathyroid hormones (PTH)

aka parathormone
targets bones, intestines, kidneys
increases blood calcium levels

29

Adrenal glands

above each kidney
aka suprarenal glands
made up of cortex and medulla

30

hormones of adrenal cortex

mineralcorticoids
glucocorticoids
Gonadocorticoids

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Mineralcorticoids

most common is aldosterone
targets kidneys
regulates water balance in body

32

Glucocorticoids

most common is cortisol
targets most cells
increase blood sugar
inhibit inflammation and immune response

33

Gonadocorticoids

aka androgens
targets ovaries and testicles
increases sex drive

34

Hormones secreted by adrenal medulla

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

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Epinephrine

aka adrenaline
targets heart and blood vessels
Coping with stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, blood flow to skeletal muscles and blood sugar

36

Norepinephrine

aka noradrenaline
targets heart and blood vessels
raises blood pressure

37

Hormones produced by panceas

insulin
glucagon

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Insulin

produced by beta cells in islets of langerhans
Targets most cells
Lowers blood glucose by increasing rate of glucose transported into cells

39

Glucagon

produced by alpha cells int he islets of langerhans
Targets liver
increases blood glucose
stimulates live to convert glycogen into the bloodstream

40

Male Gonads

testicles which produce testosterones

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Female gonads

ovaries with produce estrogen (female characteristics) and progesterone (Maintain lining of uterus for pregnancy)

42

Thymus gland

site production of t cells (immunity)
Secretes thymosin (regulates development and function of immune system)

43

Pineal Gland

Affects rate of secretion of other hormones
Secretes melatonin

44

Other organs that produce hormones

stomach (gastrin stimulates release of HCl for digestion)
Duodenum (secretes intestinal gastrin which inhibits HCl)
Kidneys (Erythropoietin EPO stimulates bone marrow to produce RBC)
Skin (cholecalciferol stimulates active transport of calcium into bloodstream)
Adipose tissue (leptin suppresses appetite)
Heart (atrial natruretic peptide)