Module 2: Chemical Foundation of the Body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 2: Chemical Foundation of the Body Deck (38):
1

Atom

smallest particle of an element showing properties of that element

2

Electron shell

where electrons are contained, Innermost shell has 2 electrons, each shell after that has up to 8 (trying to fill it)
More electrons an atom is missing = more reactive

3

Ions

Atoms that have either gained or lost an electron
# of electrons have changed, # of protons in nucleus has not changed
lose of e- = positive charge
gain of e- = negative charge

4

Ionic Bond

attraction of a positive ion to a negative one
Bond formed by transfer of electron to complete outer shell

5

Covalent Bond

bond formed by sharing electrons between two atoms
No electrons gained or lost so bond is strong and stable

6

Hydrogen Bond

Bond formed between a molecule with hydrogen and an "electron hungry" molecule
No transfer or sharing of electrons = weak bond
Responsible for 3D molecule shapes

7

Inorganic Compound

Does not contain carbon
Includes: Water, salts, many acids and bases

8

Water

60-80% of living cells
Molecules are attracted to each other (by Hydrogen)
Idea for supporting life
Ability to dissolve other chemicals
Participates in chemical reactions
Thermal stability

9

pH

based on number of hydrogen ions in solution
pH7 = base
Higher [H+] = lower pH

10

Acid

Molecules that release hydrogen in water
pH

11

Base

Molecules that accept hydrogen ions
pH>7

12

Organic Compounds

Contain Carbon
Covalent bonds
Include: carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleotides

13

Carbohydrates

Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Water soluble

14

Lipids

Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen BUT ratio or hydrogen to oxygen is high
Fats - not soluble in water

15

Proteins

Built of amino acids (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)
Some are water soluble
Includes enzymes

16

Denaturation

protein exposed to extreme heat or pH
protein shape undergoes a change in conformation

17

Nucleotides

contain a carbon-nitrogen ring, a simple carb, and phosphate groups
Includes ATP

18

ATP

composed of :nitrogen-containing base "Adenine"
- simple sugar "ribose"
- 3 phosphate groups
ATP is immediately usable energy

19

Atomic number

number of protons in nucleus of an atom

20

Mass number

sum of protons and neutrons in nucleus

21

Free radical

An atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in outer shell

22

Valence shell

Outermost shell of electrons

23

Cation

positively charged

24

Anion

Negatively charged

25

Nonpolar covalent bond

two atoms share the electrons equally

26

Polar covalent bond

Sharing of electrons between two atoms is unequal
One atom attracts the electrons more than the other

27

Law of conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Only converted to another form

28

Exergonic Reactions

Ex=out
release more energy than they absorb

29

Endergonic Reactions

Absorb more energy than they release

30

Synthesis reactions

AKA Anabolism
Usually endergonic
A + B = AB

31

Decomposition reactions

AKA Catabolism
Usually exergonic
AB = A + B

32

Exchange reactions

Both synthesis and decomposition in one
AB + CD = AC + BD

33

Reversible reactions

Products can revert to original reactants

34

Oxidation

Lose of an electron

35

Reduction

Gain of electron

36

Hydrolysis

water to loosen or break apart large molecules (ex. digestion)

37

Dehydration Synthesis reaction

when 2 molecules combine and the result is 1 molecule + H2O

38

Buffer

chemical compounds that can convert strong acids or bases into wear ones