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Flashcards in Module 4&5 Vocabulary Deck (24)
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1

- the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

Hindsight bias

2

- thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, assesses the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

Critical thinking

3

- a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science

Applied research

4

- also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

Basic research

5

- an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

Theory

6

- a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

Hypothesis

7

- a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.

Operational definition

8

- the consistency of a research study or measuring test.

Reliability

9

- repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

Replication

10

- a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

Case study

11

- observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

Naturalistic observation

12

- an experiment conducted under highly controlled conditions. The variable which is being manipulated by the researcher is called the independent variable and the dependent variable is the change in behavior measured by the researcher.

Laboratory Experiment

13

- are done in the everyday (i.e. real life) environment of the participants. The experimenter still manipulates the independent variable, but in a real-life setting (so cannot really control extraneous variables).

Field Experiment

14

- a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

Survey

15

- a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample.

Sampling Bias

16

- when an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment. 

Experimenter Bias

17

- when participants adjust their behavior to what they think the experimenters expect. 

Participant Bias

18

- all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.

Population

19

: a group of people who represent a larger population

Sample

20

- a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

Random Sample

21

- drawn from a population of interest and has demographics and characteristics that match those of the population in as many ways as possible.

Representative Sample

22

- a random sample in which members of the population are first divided into strata, then are randomly selected to be a part of the sample.

Stratified Sample

23

- a social science research term that describes the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others.

Social desirability

24

- the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed.

Hawthorne effect