Flashcards in Module 4&5 Vocabulary Deck (24)
- the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
- thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, assesses the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
- a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science
- also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
- an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
- a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
- a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
- the consistency of a research study or measuring test.
- repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
- a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
- observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
- an experiment conducted under highly controlled conditions. The variable which is being manipulated by the researcher is called the independent variable and the dependent variable is the change in behavior measured by the researcher.
- are done in the everyday (i.e. real life) environment of the participants. The experimenter still manipulates the independent variable, but in a real-life setting (so cannot really control extraneous variables).
- a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
- a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample.
- when an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment.
- when participants adjust their behavior to what they think the experimenters expect.
- all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
: a group of people who represent a larger population
- a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
- drawn from a population of interest and has demographics and characteristics that match those of the population in as many ways as possible.
- a random sample in which members of the population are first divided into strata, then are randomly selected to be a part of the sample.
- a social science research term that describes the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others.