Flashcards in Modules 6-8 Vocabulary Deck (43)

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1

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- a measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other.

### Correlation

2

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- a statistical index of the relationship between two variables (from -1.0 to +1.0)

### Correlation coefficient

3

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- a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.

### Scatterplot

4

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- the perception of a relationship where non exists.

### *Illusory Correlation

5

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- a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variable) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable).

### Experiment

6

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- in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

### Experimental Group

7

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- in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment.

### Control Group

8

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-assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups.

### Random Assignment

9

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- an experimental procedure in which both the research participant and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

### Double-blind procedure

10

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- an experiment in which the participants are unaware of who received the treatment.

### Single-blind procedure

11

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- experimental results caused by expectations alone.

### Placebo effect

12

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- the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

### Independent Variable

13

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- the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

### Dependent Variable

14

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- a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

### Confounding Variable

15

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- the extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

### Validity

16

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- numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups.

### Descriptive Statistics

17

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- a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution.

### Histogram

18

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- the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

### Mean

19

## - the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

### Median

20

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- the most frequently occurring score in a distribution.

### Mode

21

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- a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value.

### Skew

22

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- the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

### Range

23

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- a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

### Standard Deviation

24

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- a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data.

### Normal Curve

25

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- numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population.

### Inferential Statistics

26

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- a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

### Statistical Significance

27

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- exists when one variable decreases as the other variable decreases, or one variable increases while the other increases.

### Positive correlation

28

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- a relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases, and vice versa.

### Negative correlation

29

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- a measurement of the amount of people who respond to a certain call-to-action.

### Response rate

30