Modules 9 & 10 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 9 & 10 Vocabulary Deck (38)
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1

- the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neutral, hormonal) and psychological process

Biological Psychology

2

- a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

Neuron

3

- a neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Dendrites

4

- the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscle or glands

Axon

5

- a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmissions speed as neutral impulses hop from one sausage- like node to the next

Myelin Sheath

6

- a neutral impiously; a brief electric charge that travels down an axon

Action Potential

7

- a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

Refractory Period

8

a membrane-bound transporter found in nearly all mammalian cells that transports potassium ions into the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid while simultaneously transporting sodium ions out of the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid.

Sodium-Potassium Pump

9

a gap occurring at regular intervals between segments of myelin sheath along a nerve axon.

Nodes of Ranvier

10

: a class of cells in the brain and spinal cord that form a supporting structure for the neurons and provide them with insulation.

Neuroglia

11

: 1. the non-neural cells of ectodermal origin forming part of the adventitial structure of the central nervous system. 2. the tissue composed of such cells.

Oligodendroglia

12

: also called neurilemma cell, any of the cells in the peripheral nervous system that produce the myelin sheath around neuronal axons. Schwann cells are named after German physiologist Theodor Schwann, who discovered them in the 19th century.

Schwann Cells

13

: get their name because they are "star-shaped". They are the most abundant glial cells in the brain that are closely associated with neuronal synapses. They regulate the transmission of electrical impulses within the brain.

Astrocytes

14

- the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft

Synapse

15

- chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by sending neuron, these travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neutral impulse.

Neurotransmitters

16

- a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron

Reuptake

17

- the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

Threshold

18

- a neuron’s reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing

All-or-none response

19

- “morphine within”- natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

Endorphins

20

: a molecule that, by bending to a receptor site, stimulates a response

Agonist

21

: a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits or blocks a response

Antagonist

22

a filtering mechanism of the capillaries that carry blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue, blocking the passage of certain substances.

Blood-Brain Barrier

23

: the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cell of the peripheral and central nervous systems

Nervous system

24

the brain and spinal cord

Central nervous system (CNS):

25

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body

Peripheral nervous system (PNS):

26

: bundled axons that form neutral “cables” connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

Nerves

27

: neurons that carry incoming information fro the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

Sensory (afferent) neurons

28

: neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle and glands

Motor (efferent) neurons

29

: neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

Interneurons

30

: the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles also called the skeletal nervous system

Somatic nervous system