Modules 11 & 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 11 & 12 Deck (25)
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1

: tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

Lesion

2

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

Electroencephalogram (EEG):

3

: a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain’s structure

CT (computed tomography) scan

4

: a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

5

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. These scans show brain anatomy.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging):

6

: a technique for revealing blood flow, and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. These scans show brain function as well as its structure

fMRI (functional MRI)

7

: the oldest part central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; this is responsible for automatic survival functions

Brainstem

8

: the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

Medulla

9

: the brain’s sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Thalamus

10

: a nerve network that travels through the brainstem and thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal

Reticular formation

11

: the “little brain” and the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory.

Cerebellum

12

: neutral system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemisphere; associated with emotions and drive

Limbic System

13

: two Lima-bean-sized neutral clusters in the lambic system; linked to emotion.

Amygdala

14

a neutral structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus, it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

Hypothalamus;

15

: the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center

Cerebral cortex

16

: cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also pay a role in learning and thinking.

Glial cells

17

: portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movement and in making plans and judgements

Frontal lobes

18

: portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.

Parietal lobes

19

: portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; including areas that receive information from the visual fields

Occipital lobes

20

: portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; including the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

Temporal lobes

21

: an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

Motor cortex

22

: area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

Somatosensory cortex

23

: areas of the cerebral cortex that are mot involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

Association areas

24

:the brains about to change, especially during childhood, by recognizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

Plasticity

25

: the formation of new neurons

Neurogenesis