Modules 18 & 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 18 & 19 Deck (29)
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1

: the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelength vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

Wavelength

2

: the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so fourth

Hue

3

: the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude

Intensity

4

: the adjustable opening in the center of the eye which light enters

Pupil

5

: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

Iris

6

: the transport structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

Lens

7

: the light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

Retina

8

: the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

Accommodation

9

: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision what cones don't respond

Rods

10

: rental receptors cells that are concentration near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations

Cones

11

: the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

Optic nerve

12

: the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because no receptor cells are located there

Blind spot

13

: the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye’s cones cluster

Fovea

14

: nerve cells in which the brain that respond to specific fractures of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

Feature detectors

15

: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information including vision. Contrasts with the step by step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving

Parallel processing

16

: the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors- one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color

Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic (three-color) theory

17

: the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white, black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated y green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

Opponent-processing theory

18

: an organized whole. These psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

Gestalt

19

: the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)

Figure-ground

20

: the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

Grouping

21

: the ability to see objects up three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allow us to judge distance

Depth perception

22

: a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

Visual cliff

23

: depth cues, such as retrial disparity, that depends on the use of two eyes

Binocular cues

24

: a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity (difference) between the to images, the closer the object

Retinal disparity

25

: depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

Monocular cues

26

: an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick successions

Phi phenomenon

27

: perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, brightness, and color) even an illusion and retinal images change

Perceptual constancy

28

: perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

Color constancy

29

: in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

Perceptual adaptation