Modules 13-15 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 13-15 Vocabulary Deck (20)
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1

: the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Corpus callosum

2

: a conditioning resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them

Split brain

3

: our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Consciousness

4

: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language)

Cognitive neuroscience

5

:: the principe that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

Dual processing

6

: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

Behavior genetics

7

: every external influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

Environment

8

: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes

Chromosomes

9

a complex module containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):

10

: the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins

Genes

11

: the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes

Genome

12

twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

Identical twins (monozygotic twins):

13

): twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

Fraternal twins (dizygotic twins

14

: the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

Molecular genetics

15

: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. This of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studies

Heritability

16

: the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)

Interaction

17

: the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

Epigenetics

18

: the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

Evolutionary psychology

19

: the principles that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction ad survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

Natural selection

20

: a random error in gene replication that leads to a change

Mutation