Flashcards in Modules 31-33 Vocabulary Deck (38)
- the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.
- the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning
- the process of retaining encoded information over time.
- the process of getting information out of memory storage.
- the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously.
- the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
- activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten
- the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
- a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
- memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (aka declarative memory)
- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
- unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
- retention independent of conscious recollection. We are unaware that this happens.
(aka non-declarative memory)
- a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
- a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
- organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
- memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
- the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through masses study or practice.
- enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning
- encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.
- encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.
- a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
- a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
- an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
- measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
- a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again
- the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
- the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.