Modules 31-33 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 31-33 Vocabulary Deck (38)
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1

- the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.

Memory

2

- the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning

Encoding

3

- the process of retaining encoded information over time.

Storage

4

- the process of getting information out of memory storage.

Retrieval

5

- the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously.

Parallel Processing

6

- the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

Sensory memory

7

- activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten

Short-term memory

8

- the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

Long-term memory

9

- a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

Working memory

10

- memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (aka declarative memory)

Explicit memory

11

- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

Effortful processing

12

- unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

Automatic processing

13

- retention independent of conscious recollection. We are unaware that this happens.
(aka non-declarative memory)

Implicit memory

14

- a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

Iconic memory

15

- a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

Echoic memory

16

- organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

Chunking

17

- memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

Mnemonics

18

- the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through masses study or practice.

Spacing effect

19

- enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning

Testing effect

20

- encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.

Shallow processing

21

- encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.

Deep processing

22

- a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

Hippocampus

23

- a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

Flashbulb memory

24

- an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

25

- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

Recall

26

- measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.

Recognition

27

- a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

Relearning

28

- the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

Priming

29

- the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.

Mood-congruent memory

30

- our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

Serial position effect