Modules 34-36 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Modules 34-36 Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Modules 34-36 Vocabulary Deck (31)
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1

- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Cognition

2

- a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people.

Concept

3

- a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

Prototype

4

- the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

Creativity

5

- narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.

Convergent thinking

6

- expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions).

Divergent thinking

7

- a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error-prone- use of heuristics.

Algorithm

8

- a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.

Heuristic

9

- a sudden realization of a problem’s solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions

Insight

10

- a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

Confirmation bias

11

- a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.

Mental set

12

- an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.

Intuition

13

- judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.

Representative heuristic

14

- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness) we presume such events are common.

Availability heuristic

15

- the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements

Overconfidence

16

- clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

Belief perseverance

17

- the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.

Framing

18

- our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

Language

19

- in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

Phoneme

20

- in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).

Morpheme

21

- a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.

Grammar

22

- in a language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds.

Semantics

23

- in a language, syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences

Syntax

24

- beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.

Babbling stage

25

- the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

One-word stage

26

- beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.

Two-word stage

27

- early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram- “go car”- using mostly nouns and verbs.

Telegraphic speech

28

- impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding).

Aphasia

29

- controls language expression- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.

Broca's area

30

- controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.

Wenicke’s area